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英语六级考试改错题训练(三)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午11:19
  二、介词的使用错误

  介词使用错误是改错题常见的错误类型之一。介词的用法是英语学习中的的一大难点,英语中有相当数量的动词短语、介词短语和固定短语都含有介词。尽管介词本身数量并不多,但是其搭配方式之丰富多变往往使英语考生为之色变。能否准确地运用介词可直接反映出考生的英语基础是否扎实,因此一般考试都会包括这种类型的错误。介词主要涉及用法与搭配,是短文改错中出现频率最高,也是我们最易失分的一类题型,要在这类题型的辨错及改错上有所突破,我们必须注意平时介词用法知识的积累。

  为获得高分,在改错练习中,务必注意从以下几个方面辨认:①介词与动词的搭配,如: accuse sb. of , charge sb. from , prohibit sb. from , differ from , contribute to 等; ② 介词与名词的搭配,如: count on , influence on/upon , improve on , belief/believe in , confidence in , advantage on , preference over , attitude to/toward , solution to 等; ③ 介词与形容词的搭配,如: different from , indifferent to/toward , dependent on/upon , independent of , on good/bad terms with , on the contrary , by chance , by turns 等。

  例 1

  The first necessity of child upbringing is a

  secure emotional background with parents who

  are united in their attitude with children. 1.__________

  “ attitude toward ” 是表示 “ 对 …… 的态度 ” ,为固定用法,而没有 “ attitude with ” 的用法,因此应该将 with 改为 toward.

  例 2

  Unfortunately we have not found complete

  solutions with the various problems of our 1.__________

  society, such like poverty, homelessness or 2.__________

  the growth of crime.

  “ solution to problem ” 表示 “ 问题的解决办法 ” ,为固定搭配用法,因此应该将 with 改为介词 to , “ such as ” 表示 “ 例如、诸如 ” 的意思,为固定搭配,因此应该将 like 改为 as 。

  例 3

  More and more people live in towns and cities

  instead on farms and in villages. 1.__________

  Instead 本身为副词,其后不可以直接接宾语,而应该在后面加上介词 of 。“ instead of ”表示“代替,不是……”的意思。

  例 4

  His Arab host, who had been watching, said

  of nothing, but immediately copied the action of 1.__________

  his guest.

  动词 say 本身即为及物动词,后面可以直接接上宾语,因此不需要在后面加上介词 of 。这属于介词滥用情形,应该将 nothing 之前的 of 删去。

  通过上述几个例子可以看出,介词的用法灵活多变,且许多为固定的用法或者搭配形式。要想真正克服这个拦路虎,我们需要在平时的学习过程中加以记忆和理解,逐步积累,才可以更好的掌握其用法。

  练习题

  1 People realize that, although animals may not have

  the same intelligence like human being, they are smart 1.__________

  enough to learn certain things.

  2 Marconi, the Italian inventor who gave us radio,

  probably didn’t realize what effect his great invention

  would have for the world in the yours to come. 2.__________

  3 Before you make travel in another country, find

  out much as possible about its manners and customs. 3.__________

  You will probably be surprised how different they

  can be with your own. 4.__________

  4 We are told that the world’s population is increasing

  with such a speed that the need for fresh water will be 5.__________

  doubled by the end of the century.

  5 Immediately before him was a very flat piece

  of bread that looked to him, very much as napkin. 6.__________

  6 It is encouraging to note that in recent years,

  cigarette smokers have been in the decline, especially 7.__________

  among the older people.

  7 In 1980 black students comprised of about 10 8.__________

  percent of all college enrollments, up from 5 percent

  in 1965.

  8 The law I am referring requires that everyone who 9.__________

  own a car have accident insurance.

  9 But perhaps we should look at both sides of the

  coin before arriving hasty conclusions. 10.__________

  10 Big cities of the world are well-known by their 11.__________

  noises.

  答案解析:

  1.将like改为as。

  2.将for改为on或者upon。和前面的名词effect搭配的介词为on或者upon,意为“对……的影响,对……的作用”。类似的词组还有impact on/upon(对……的影响或冲击),influence on/upon(对……有影响)等。

  3.在much之前加上介词as。

  4.将with改为from。

  5.将with改为at。当表示速度的时候应该使用“at the speed of”或者“at…speed”,“with…speed”没有这个用法。

  6.将as改为like。此处的“to him”仅为一个插入语,原句的顺序可以理解为“that looked very much like a napkin to him”。

  7.将in改为on。“on the decline”表示“下降,减少”的意思,为固定搭配用法。

  8.删去of。此处comprise虽然与consist,compose意义相同,但是使用方法却不一样。Comprise为及物动词,后面不需要接介词,consist后面要加介词of,而compose一般使用be composed of的形式。

  9.在referring后面加上介词to。

  10.在arriving后面加上at。

  11.将by改为for。“be known for”表示“因为……而出名,以……闻名”之意。而“be known by”是指“被……知道”的意思。

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