Subscribe to Posts
Subscribe to Comments
字号: | |


发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午4:52 37 评论




Part I Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)
Section A
1.A) The dean should have consulted her on the appointment.
B) Dr. Holden should have taken over the position earlier.
C) She doesn’t think Dr. Holden has made a wise choice.
D) Dr. Holden is the best person for the chairmanship.
2 .A) They’ll keep in touch during the summer vacation
B) They’ll hold a party before the summer vacation
C) They’ll do odd jobs together at the school library
D) They’ll get back to their school once in a while

3. A)Peaches are in season now.
B)Peaches are not at their best now.
C)The woman didn’t know how to bargain.
D)The woman helped the man choose the fruit.

4.A)They join the physics club.
B)They ask for an extension of the deadline.
C)They work on the assignment together.
D)They choose an easier assignment.

5.A)She admires Jean’s straightforwardness
B)She thinks Dr. Brown deserves the praise
C)She will talk to Jean about what happened
D)She believes Jean was rude to Dr. Brown

6.A)He liked writing when he was a child
B)He enjoyed reading stories in Reader’s Digest
C)He used to be an editor of Reader’s Digest
D)He became well known at the age of six

7.A)He shows great enthusiasm for his studies
B)He is a very versatile person
C)He has no talent for tennis
D)He does not study hard enough
8 A) John has lost something at the railway station
B) There are several railway stations in the city
C) It will be very difficult for them to find John
D) The train that John is taking will arrive soon
9. A)Its rapid growth is beneficial to the world
B)It can be seen as a model by the rest of the world
C)Its success can’t be explained by elementary economics
D)It will continue to surge forward
10.A)It takes only 5 minutes to reach the campus from the apartments
B)Most students can’t afford to live in the new apartments
C)The new apartments are not available until next month
D)The new apartments can accommodate 500 students
Section B
11.A)The role of immigrants in the construction of American society
B)The importance of offering diverse courses in European history
C)The need for greater cultural diversity in the school curriculum
D)The historic landing of Europeans on the Virginia shore
12.A)He was wondering if the speaker was used to living in America
B)He was trying to show friendliness to the speaker
C)He wanted to keep their conversation going
D)He believed the speaker was a foreigner
13.A)The US population doesn’t consist of white European descendants only
B)Asian tourists can speak English as well as native speakers of the language
C)Colored people are not welcome in the United States
D)Americans are in need of education in their history
14.A)By making laws
B)By enforcing discipline
C)By educating the public
D)By holding ceremonies
15.A)It should be raised by soldiers
B)It should be raised quickly by hand
C)It should be raised only by Americans
D)It should be raised by mechanical means
16.A)It should be attached to the status
B)It should be hung from the top of the monument
C)It should be spread over the object to be unveiled
D)It should be carried high up in the air
17.A)There has been a lot of controversy over the use of flag
B)The best athletes can wear uniforms with the design of the flag
C)There are precise regulations and customs to be followed
D)Americans can print the flag on their cushions or handkerchiefs

Passage Three
18.A)Punishment by teachers
 B)Poor academic performance
19.A)The Board of Education
 B)Principals of city schools
 C)Students with good academic records
 D)Students with good attendance records
20 . A) Punishing students who damage school property
B) Rewarding schools that have decreased the destruction
C) Promoting teachers who can prevent the destruction
D) Cutting the budget for repairs and replacements
Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.
Passage one
Too many vulnerable child-free adults are being ruthlessly(
无情的)manipulated into parent-hood by their parents , who think that happiness among older people depends on having a grand-child to spoil. We need an organization to help beat down the persistent campaigns of grandchildless parents. It’s time to establish Planned Grandparenthood, which would have many global and local benefits.
Part of its mission would be to promote the risks and realities associated with being a grandparent. The staff would include depressed grandparents who would explain how grandkids break lamps, bite, scream and kick. Others would detail how an hour of baby-sitting often turns into a crying marathon. More grandparents would testify that they had to pay for their grandchild’s expensive college education.
Planned grandparenthood’s carefully written literature would detail all the joys of life grand-child-free a calm living room, extra money for luxuries during the golden years, etc. Potential grandparents would be reminded that, without grandchildren around, it’s possible to have a conversation with your kids, who----incidentally-----would have more time for their own parents .
Meanwhile, most children are vulnerable to the enormous influence exerted by grandchildless parents aiming to persuade their kids to produce children . They will take a call from a persistent parent, even if they’re loaded with works. In addition, some parents make handsome money offers payable upon the grandchild’s birth. Sometimes these gifts not only cover expenses associated with the infant’s birth, but extras, too, like a vacation. In any case, cash gifts can weaken the resolve of even the noblest person.
At Planned Grandparenthood, children targeted by their parents to reproduce could obtain non-biased information about the insanity of having their own kids. The catastrophic psychological and economic costs of childbearing would be emphasized. The symptoms of morning sickness would be listed and horrors of childbirth pictured. A monthly newsletter would contain stories about overwhelmed parents and offer guidance on how childless adults can respond to the different lobbying tactics that would-be grandparents employ.
When I think about all the problems of our overpopulated world and look at our boy grabbing at the lamp by the sofa, I wish I could have turned to Planned Grandparenthood when my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me.
If I could have, I might not be in this parenthood predicament(
窘境) . But here’s the crazy irony, I don’t want my child-free life back . Dylan’s too much fun.
21. What’s the purpose of the proposed organization Planned Grandparenthood?
A) To encourage childless couples to have children.
B) To provide facilities and services for grandchildless parents.
C) To offer counseling to people on how to raise grandchildren.
D) To discourage people from insisting on having grandchildren.

22. Planned Grandparenthood would include depressed grandparents on its staff in order to____.
A) show them the joys of life grandparents may have in raising grandchildren
B) draw attention to the troubles and difficulties grandchildren may cause
C) share their experience in raising grandchildren in a more scientific way
D) help raise funds to cover the high expense of education for grandchildren

23. According to the passage, some couples may eventually choose to have children because_____.
A) they find it hard to resist the carrot-and-stick approach of their parents
B) they have learn from other parents about the joys of having children
C) they feel more and more lonely ad they grow older
D) they have found it irrational to remain childless

24.By saying “… my parents were putting the grandchild squeeze on me” (Line 2-3,Para. 6), the author means that _________.
A) her parents kept pressuring her to have a child
B) her parents liked to have a grandchild in their arms
C) her parents asked her to save for the expenses of raising a child
D) her parents kept blaming her for her child’s bad behavior

25.What does the author really of the idea of having children?
A) It does more harm than good.
B) It contributes to overpopulation.
C) It is troublesome but rewarding.
D) It is a psychological catastrophe

Passage Two
Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.
Ask most people how they define the American Dream and chances are they’ll say, “Success.” The dream of individual opportunity has been home in American since Europeans discovered a “new world” in the Western Hemisphere. Early immigrants like Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur praised highly the freedom and opportunity to be found in this new land. His glowing descriptions of a classless society where anyone could attain success through honesty and hard work fired the imaginations of many European readers: in Letters from an American Farmer (1782) he wrote. “We are all excited at the spirit of an industry which is unfettered (
无拘无束的) and unrestrained, because each person works for himself … We have no princes, for whom we toil (干苦力活)starve, and bleed: we are the most perfect society now existing in the world.” The promise of a land where “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” drew poor immigrants from Europe and fueled national expansion into the western territories.
Our national mythology (
神化) is full of illustration the American success story. There’s Benjamin Franklin, the very model of the self-educated, self-made man, who rose from modest origins to become a well-known scientist, philosopher, and statesman. In the nineteenth century, Horatio Alger, a writer of fiction for young boys, became American’s best-selling author with rags-to-riches tales. The notion of success haunts us: we spend million every year reading about the rich and famous, learning how to “make a fortune in real estate with no money down,” and “dressing for success.” The myth of success has even invaded our personal relationships: today it’s as important to be “successful” in marriage or parenthoods as it is to come out on top in business.
But dreams easily turn into nightmares. Every American who hopes to “make it” also knows the fear of failure, because the myth of success inevitably implies comparison between the haves and the have-nots, the stars and the anonymous crowd. Under pressure of the myth, we become indulged in status symbols: we try to live in the “right” neighborhoods, wear the “right” clothes, eat the “right” foods. These symbols of distinction assure us and others that we believe strongly in the fundamental equality of all, yet strive as hard as we can to separate ourselves from our fellow citizens.

26. What is the essence of the American Dream according to Crevecoeur?
A) People are free to develop their power of imagination.
B) People who are honest and work hard can succeed.
C) People are free from exploitation and oppression.
D) People can fully enjoy individual freedom.

27.By saying “the rewards of a man’s industry follow with equal steps the progress of his labor” (Line 10, Para. 1), the author means __________ .
A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns
B) laborious work ensures the growth of an industry
C) a man’s business should be developed step by step
D) a company’s success depends on its employees’ hard work

28. The characters described in Horatio Alger’s novels are people who _______.
A) succeed in real estate investment
B) earned enormous fortunes by chances
C) became wealthy after starting life very poor
D) became famous despite their modest origins

29. It can be inferred from the last sentence of the second paragraph that _________.
A) business success often contributes to a successful marriage
B) Americans wish to succeed in every aspect of life
C) good personal relationships lead to business success
D) successful business people provide good care for their children

30. What is the paradox of American culture according to the author?
A) The American road to success is full of nightmares.
B) Status symbols are not a real indicator of a person’s wealth.
C) The American Dream is nothing but an empty dream.
D) What Americans strive after often contradicts their beliefs.

Passage Three
Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.
Public distrust of scientists stems in part from the blurring of boundaries between science and technology, between discovery and manufacture. Most government, perhaps all governments, justify public expenditure on scientific research in terms of the economic benefits the scientific enterprise ha brought in the past and will bring in the future. Politicians remind their voters of the splendid machines ‘our scientists’ have invented, the new drugs to relieve old ailments (
病痛), and the new surgical equipment and techniques by which previously intractable (难治疗的) conditions may now be treated and lives saved. At the same time, the politicians demand of scientists that they tailor their research to ‘economics needs’, that they award a higher priority to research proposals that are ‘near the market’ and can be translated into the greatest return on investment in the shortest time. Dependent, as they are, on politicians for much of their funding, scientists have little choice but to comply. Like the rest of us, they are members of a society that rates the creation of wealth as the greatest possible good. Many have reservations, but keep them to themselves in what they perceive as a climate hostile to the pursuit of understanding for its own sake and the idea of an inquiring, creative spirit.
In such circumstances no one should be too hard on people who are suspicious of conflicts of interest. When we learn that the distinguished professor assuring us of the safety of a particular product holds a consultancy with the company making it, we cannot be blamed for wondering whether his fee might conceivably cloud his professional judgment. Even if the professor holds no consultancy with any firm, some people many still distrust him because of his association with those who do, or at least wonder about the source of some his research funding.
This attitude can have damaging effects. It questions the integrity of individuals working in a profession that prizes intellectual honesty as the supreme virtue, and plays into the hands of those who would like to discredit scientists by representing then a venal (
可以收买的). This makes it easier to dismiss all scientific pronouncements, but especially those made by the scientists who present themselves as ‘experts’. The scientist most likely to understand the safety of a nuclear reactor, for example, is a nuclear engineer declares that a reactor is unsafe, we believe him, because clearly it is not to his advantage to lie about it. If he tells us it is safe, on the other hand, we distrust him, because he may well be protecting the employer who pays his salary.

31. What is the chief concern of most governments when it comes to scientific research?
A) Support from the votes.
B) The reduction of public expenditure.
C) Quick economics returns.
D) The budget for a research project.

32. Scientist have to adapt their research to ‘economic needs’ in order to _________ .
A) impress the public with their achievements
B) pursue knowledge for knowledge’s sake
C) obtain funding from the government
D) translate knowledge into wealth

33. Why won’t scientists complain about the government’s policy concerning scientific research?
A) They think they work in an environment hostile to the free pursuit of knowledge.
B) They are accustomed to keeping their opinions to themselves.
C) They know it takes patience to win support from the public.
D) They think compliance with government policy is in the interests of the public.

34. According to the author, people are suspicious of the professional judgment of scientists because ___________ .
A) their pronouncements often turn out to be wrong
B) sometimes they hide the source of their research funding
C) some of them do not give priority to intellectual honesty
D) they could be influenced by their association with the project concerned

35. Why does the author say that public distrust of scientists can have damaging effects?
A) It makes things difficult for scientists seeking research funds.
B) People would not believe scientists even when they tell the truth.
C) It may dampen the enthusiasm of scientists for independent research.
D) Scientists themselves may doubt the value of their research findings.

Passage Four
Questions 36 to 40 are based on the following passage.
In many ways, today’s business environment has changed qualitatively since the late 1980s. The end of the Cold War radically altered the very nature of the world’s politics and economics. In just a few short years, globalization has started a variety of trends with profound consequences: the opening of markets, true global competition, widespread deregulation (
解除政府对……的控制) of industry, and an abundance of accessible capital. We have experienced both the benefits and risks of a truly global economy, with both Wall Street and Main Street (平民百姓) feeling the pains of economic disorder half a world away.
At the same time, we have fully entered the Information Age, Starting breakthroughs in information technology have irreversibly altered the ability to conduct business unconstrained by the traditional limitations of time or space. Today, it’s almost impossible to imagine a world without intranets, e-mail, and portable computers. With stunning speed, the Internet is profoundly changing the way we work, shop, do business, and communicate.
As a consequence, we have truly entered the Post-Industrial economy. We are rapidly shifting from an economy based on manufacturing and commodities to one that places the greatest value on information, services, support, and distribution. That shift, in turn, place an unprecedented premium on “knowledge workers,” a new class of wealthy, educated, and mobile people who view themselves as free agents in a seller’s market.
Beyond the realm of information technology, the accelerated pace of technological change in virtually every industry has created entirely new business, wiped out others, and produced a Pervasive(
广泛的) demand for continuous innovation. New product, process ,and distribution technologies provide powerful levers for creating competitive value. More companies are learning the importance of destructive technologies-----innovations that hold the potential to make a product line, or even an entire business segment, virtually outdated.
Another major trend has been the fragmentation of consumer and business markets. There’s a growing appreciation that superficially similar groups of customers may have very different preferences in terms of what they want to buy and how they want to buy it. Now, new technology makes it easier, faster ,and cheaper to identify and serve targeted micro-markets in ways that were physically impossible or prohibitively expensive in the past. Moreover, the trend feeds on itself, a business’s ability to serve sub-markets fuels customers’ appetites for more and more specialized offerings.

36. According to the first paragraph, the chances in the business environment in the past decades can be attributed to __________.
A) technological advances
B) worldwide economic disorder
C) the fierce competition in industry
D) the globalization of economy

37. what idea does the author want to convey in the second paragraph ?
A) The rapid development of information technology has taken businessmen by surprise
B) Information technology has removed the restrictions of time and space in business transactions
C) The Internet, intranets, e-mail, and portable computers have penetrated every corner of the world.
D) The way we do business today has brought about startling breakthroughs in information technology.

38. If a business wants to thrive in the Post-Industrial economy,__________
A) it has to invest more capital in the training of free agents to operate in a seller’s market
B) it should try its best to satisfy the increasing demands of mobile knowledgeable people
C) it should not overlook the importance of information, services, support, and distribution
D) it has to provide each of its employees with the latest information about the changing market

39. In the author’s view, destructive technologies are innovations which _________
A) can eliminate an entire business segment
B) demand a radical change in providing services
C) may destroy the potential of a company to make any profit
D) call for continuous improvement in ways of doing business

40. With the fragmentation of consumer and business markets ______________
A) an increasing number of companies have disintegrated
B) manufacturers must focus on one special product to remain competitive in the market
C) it is physically impossible and prohibitively expensive to do business in the old way
D) businesses have to meet individual customers’ specific needs in order to succeed .

Part III Vocabulary (20minutes)
41. It seems somewhat ___________ to expect anyone to drive 3 hours just for a 20-minute meeting.
A) eccentric B) impossible C) absurd D) unique

42. This area of the park has been specially __________ for children, but accompanying adults are also welcome.
A) inaugurated B) designated C) entitled D) delegated

43. The girl’s face __________ with embarrassment during the interview when she couldn’t answer the tough question.
A) beamed B) dazzled C) radiated D) flushed

44. Slavery was __________ in Canada in 1833, and Canadian authorities encouraged the slaves, who escaped from America, to settle on its vast virgin land
A) diluted B) dissipated C) abolished D) resigned

45. Unfortunately, the new edition of dictionary is __________ in all major bookshops.
A) out of reach B) out of stock C) out of business D) out of season

46. The hands on my alarm clock are __________, so I can see what time it is in the dark.
A) exotic B) gorgeous C) luminous D) spectacular

47. Psychologists have done extensive studies on how well patients __________ with doctors’ orders.
A) comply B) correspond C) interfere D) interact

48. In today’s class, the students were asked to __their mistakes on the exam paper and put in their possible corrections.
A) cancel B) omit C)extinguish D)erase
49. The Government’s policies will come under close __ in the weeks before the election.
A) appreciation B) specification C)scrutiny D)apprehension
50. Police and villagers unanimously __the forest fire to thunder and lightning.
A) ascribed B) approached C)confirmed D)confined

51. In some remote places there are still very poor people who can’t afford to live in __conditions.
A) gracious B) decent C)honorable D)positive
52. Since our knowledge is __ none of us can exclude the possibility of being wrong.
A) controlled B )restrained C)finite D)delicate
53. You shouldn’t __your father’s instructions. Anyway he is an experienced teacher.
A) deduce B) deliberate C)defy
54. The company management attempted to __information that was not favorable to them, but it was all in vain.
A) suppress B) supplement C)concentrate D)Plug
55. It is my hope that everyone in this class should __ their errors before it is too late.
A) refute B) exclude C)expel D)rectify
56. The boy’s foolish question __his mother who was busy with housework and had no interest in talking.
A) Intrigued B) fascinated C) irritated D)stimulated
57. Millions of people around the world have some type of physical, mental, or emotional __ that severely limits their abilities to manage their daily activities.
A) scandal B) misfortune C)deficit D)handicap
58. It is believed that the feeding patterns parents __ on their children can determine their adolescent and adult eating habits.
A) compel B) impose C)evoke
59.If the value-added tax were done away with, it would act as a __ to consumption.
A) progression B) prime C)stability D)stimulus
60. The bride and groom promised to __ each other through sickness and health.
A) nourish B) nominate C)roster D)cherish
61. They’re going to build a big office block on that __ piece of land.
A) void B) vacant C)blank D)shallow
62. Without any hesitation, she took off her shoes, __up her skirt and splashed across the stream.
A) tucked B) revolved C)twisted D)curled
63.Very few people could understand his lecture because the subject was very __.
A) faint B) obscure C)gloomy D)indefinite
64. Professor Smith explained the movement of light__ that of water.
A) by analogy with B) by virtue of C)in line with D)in terms of
65. Tom is bankrupt now. He is desperate because all his efforts __ failure.
A) tumbled to B) hinged upon C)inflicted on D)culminated in
66. While fashion is thought of usually __ clothing, it is important to realize that it covers a much wider domain.
A) in relation to B) in proportion to C)by means of D)on behalf of
67. The meaning of the sentence is __; you can interpret it in several ways.
A) skeptical B) intelligible C)ambiguous D)exclusive
68. Cancer is a group of diseases in which there is uncontrolled and disordered growth of __ cells.
A) irrelevant B) inferior C)controversial D)abnormal
69.At that time, the economy was still undergoing a __,and job offers were hard to get.
A) concession B) supervision C)recession D)deviation
70.I could hear nothing but the roar of the airplane engines which __all other sounds.
A) overturned B) drowned C)deafened D)smoothed

Part IV Error Correction (15 minutes)

Every week hundreds of CVs(简历) land on our desks.

We’ve seen it all: CVs printed on pink paper, CVs that are 10

pages long and CVs with silly mistakes in first paragraph. A S1 _____________

good CV is your passport to an interview and ,ultimate , to S2______________

the job you want Initial impressions are vital, and a badly presented CV

could mean acceptance, regardless of what’s in it. S3______________

Here are a few ways to avoid end up on the reject pile. S4______________

Print your CV on good-quality white paper.

CVs with flowery backgrounds or pink paper will

stand out upon all the wrong reasons S5_______________

Get someone to check for spelling and grammatical

errors, because a spell-checker will pick up every S6_______________

mistake. CVs with errors will be rejected-it shows

that you don’t pay attention to detail.

Restrict your self to one or two pages, and

listing any publications or referees on a separate sheet. S7_______________

If you are sending your CV electronically, check the

formatting by sending it to yourself first. keep up S8______________

the format simple.

Do not send a photo unless specifically requested. If

you have to send on ,make sure it is one taking in a S9_____________

professional setting, rather than a holiday snap.

Getting the presentation right is just the first step. What

about the content? The Rule here is to keep it factual and

Truthful-exaggerations usually get find out. And remember S10____________

to tailor your CV to each different job.

Part V Writing (30minutes)
Direction For this part ,you are allowed 30 minutes to write a letter to a company declining a job offer, You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below
A Letter Declining a Job Offer

Part I Listening Comprehension(20 minutes)
Section A
1. D) Dr. Holden is the best person for the chairmanship.
2. A) They’ll keep in touch during the summer vacation
3. B) Peaches are not at their best now.
4. C) They work on the assignment together.
5. A) She admires Jean’s straightforwardness
6. A) He liked writing when he was a child
7. D) He does not study hard enough
8. C) It will be very difficult for them to find John
9. A) Its rapid growth is beneficial to the world
10. B) Most students can’t afford to live in the new apartments
Section B
Passage One
11. C) The need for greater cultural diversity in the school curriculum
12. D) He believed the speaker was a foreigner
13. A) The US population doesn’t consist of white European descendants only
Passage Two
14. A) By making laws
15. B) It should be raised quickly by hand
16. D) It should be carried high up in the air
17. C) There are precise regulations and customs to be followed
Passage Three
18. C) Truancy
19. D) Students with good attendance records
20. B) Rewarding schools that have decreased the destruction

Part II Reading Comprehension (35 minutes)
Passage one
21. D) To discourage people from insisting on having grandchildren.
22. B) draw attention to the troubles and difficulties grandchildren may cause
23. A) they find it hard to resist the carrot-and-stick approach of their parents
24. A) her parents kept pressuring her to have a child
25. C) It is troublesome but rewarding.
Passage Two
26. D) People can fully enjoy individual freedom.
27. A) the more diligent one is, the bigger his returns
28. C) became wealthy after starting life very poor
29. B) Americans wish to succeed in every aspect of life
30. D) What Americans strive after often contradicts their beliefs.
Passage Three
31. B) The reduction of public expenditure.
32. C) obtain funding from the government
33. A) They think they work in an environment hostile to the free pursuit of knowledge.
34. D) they could be influenced by their association with the project concerned
35. B) People would not believe scientists even when they tell the truth.
Passage Four
36. D) the globalization of economy
37. B) Information technology has removed the restrictions of time and space in business transactions
38. C) it should not overlook the importance of information, services, support, and distribution
39. A) can eliminate an entire business segment
40. D) businesses have to meet individual customers’ specific needs in order to succeed

Part III Vocabulary (20 minutes)
41. C) absurd
42. C) entitled
43. D) flushed
44. C) abolished
45. B) out of stock
46. C) luminous
47. A) comply
48. D) erase
49. C) scrutiny
50. A) ascribed
51. B) decent
52. C) finite
53. C) defy
54. A) suppress
55. D) rectify
56. C) irritated
57. C) deficit
58. B) impose
59. D) stimulus
60. D) cherish
61. C) blank
62. A) tucked
63. B) obscure
64. A) by analogy
65. B) hinged upon
66. C) by means of
67. D) exclusive
68. D) abnormal
69. C) recession
70. C) deafened

Part IV Error Correction (15 minutes)
S1. in first
in the first
ultimate ultimately
S3. acceptance
S4.avoid end
S5.stand out
S6.pick up
pick out
S8.keep up

字号: | |


发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午4:44 2 评论


Part Listening Comprehension (20 minutes)

Section A:

Directions: In this section, you will hear 10 short conversations. At the end of each conversation, a question will be asked about what was said. Both the conversation and the question will be spoken only once. After each question there will be a pause. During the pause, you must read the four choices marked A), B), C) and D), and decide which is the best answer. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Example: You will hear:
You will read:

A) 2 hours.

B) 3 hours.

C) 4 hours.

D) 5 hours.


From the conversation we know that the two are talking about some work they will start at 9 oclock in the morning and have to finish by 2 in the afternoon. Therefore, D) 5 hours is the correct answer. You should choose D on the Answer Sheet and mark it with a single line through the centre.


Sample Answer A][B][C][D

1. A) It will reduce government revenues.

B) It will stimulate business activities.

C) It will mainly benefit the wealthy.

D) It will cut the stockholders’ dividends.

2. A) She will do her best if the job is worth doing.

B) She prefers a life of continued exploration.

C) She will stick to the job if the pay is good.

D) She doesn’t think much of job-hopping.


3. A) Stop thinking about the matter.

B) Talk the drug user out of the habit.

C) Be more friendly to his schoolmate.

D) Keep his distance from drug addicts.


4. A) The son.                  B) The father.

C) The mother.               D) Aunt Louise.


5. A) Stay away for a couple of weeks.

B) Check the locks every two weeks.

C) Look after the Johnsons’ house.

D) Move to another place.


6. A) He would like to warm up for the game.

B) He didn’t want to be held up in traffic.

C) He didn’t want to miss the game.

D) He wanted to catch as many game birds as possible.


7. A) It was burned down.       B) It was robbed.

C) It was blown up.          D) It was closed down.


8. A) She isn’t going to change her major.

B) She plans to major in tax law.

C) She studies in the same school as her brother.

D) She isn’t going to work in her brother’s firm.


9. A) The man should phone the hotel for directions.

B) The man can ask the department store for help.

C) She doesn’t have the hotel’s phone number.

D) The hotel is just around the corner.


10. A) she doesn’t expect to finish all her work in thirty minutes.

B) She has to do a lot of things within a short time.

C) She has been overworking for a long time.

D) She doesn’t know why there are so many things to do.


Section B Compound Dictation

注意: 听力理解的B节(Section B)为复合式听写(Compound Dictation),题目在试卷二上,现在请取出试卷二。


Part   Reading Comprehension

Directions: There are 4 passages in this part. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A),B),C),and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the center.

Passage One

Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

Low-level slash-and-burn farming doesn’t harm rainforest. On the contrary, it helps farmers and improves forest soils. This is the unorthodox view of a German soil scientist who has shown that burnt clearings in the Amazon, dating back more than 1,000 years, helped create patches of rich, fertile soil that farmers still benefit from today.

  Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because they lack minerals and because the heat and heavy rainfall destroy most organic matter in the soils within four years of it reaching the forest floor. This means topsoil contains few of the ingredients needed for long-term successful farming.

    But Bruno Glaser, a soil scientist of the University of Bayreuth, has studied unexpected patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon. These soils contain lots of organic matter.

Glaser has shown that most of this fertile organic matter comes from “black carbon”-the organic particles from camp fires and charred (烧成炭的) wood left over from thousands of years of slash-and-burn farming. ”The soils, known as Terra Preta, contained up to 70times more black carbon than the surrounding soil, ”says Glaser.

Unburnt vegetation rots quickly, but black carbon persists in the soil for many centuries. Radiocarbon dating shows that the charred wood in Terra Preta soils is typically more than 1,000 years old.

“Slash-and-burn farming can be good for soils provided it doesn’t completely burn all the vegetation, and leaves behind charred wood,” says Glaser. “It can be better than manure (粪肥).” Burning the forest just once can leave behind enough black carbon to keep the soil fertile for thousands of years. And rainforests easily regrow after small-scale clearing. Contrary to the conventional view that human activities damage the environment, Glaser says: ”Black carbon combined with human wastes is responsible for the richness of Terra Preta soils.”

Terra Preta soils turn up in large patches all over the Amazon, where they are highly prized by farmers. All the patches fall within 500 square kilometers in the central Amazon. Glaser says the widespread presence of pottery (陶器) confirms the soil’s human origins.

The findings add weight to the theory that large areas of the Amazon have recovered so well from past periods of agricultural use that the regrowth has been mistaken by generations of biologists for “virgin” forest.

During the past decade, researchers have discovered hundreds of large earth works deep in the jungle. They are up to 20 meters high and cover up to a square kilometer. Glaser claims that these earth works, built between AD 400 and 1400, were at the heart of urban civilizations. Now it seems the richness of the Terra Preta soils may explain how such civilizations managed to feed themselves.

11. We learn from the passage that the traditional view of slash-and-burn farming is that        .

A) it does no harm to the topsoil of the rainforest

B) it destroys rainforest soils

C) it helps improve rainforest soils

D) it diminishes the organic matter in rainforest soils


12. Most rainforest soils are thin and poor because       .

A) the composition of the topsoil is rather unstable

B) black carbon is washed away by heavy rains

C) organic matter is quickly lost due to heat and rain

D) long-term farming has exhausted the ingredients essential to plant growth


13. Glaser made his discovery by        .

A) studying patches of fertile soils in the central Amazon

B) examining pottery left over by ancient civilizations

C) test-burning patches of trees in the central Amazon

D) radiocarbon-dating ingredients contained in forest soils


14. What does Glaser say about the regrowth of rainforests?

A) They take centuries to regrow after being burnt.

B) They cannot recover unless the vegetation is burnt completely.

C) Their regrowth will be hampered by human habitation.

D) They can recover easily after slash-and-burn farming.


15. From the passage it can be inferred that .

A) human activities will do grave damage to rainforests

B) Amazon rainforest soils used to be the richest in the world

C) farming is responsible for the destruction of the Amazon rainforests

D) there once existed an urban civilization in the Amazon rainforests

Passage Two

Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.

As a wise man once said, we are all ultimately alone. But an increasing number of Europeans are choosing to be so at an ever earlier age. This isn’t the stuff of gloomy philosophical contemplations, but a fact of Europe’s new economic landscape, embraced by sociologists, real-estate developers and ad executives alike. The shift away from family life to solo lifestyle, observes a French sociologist, is part of the irresistible momentum of individualism over the last century. The communications revolution, the shift from a business culture of stability to one of mobility and the mass entry of women into the workforce have greatly wreaked havoc on(扰乱) Europeans’ private lives.

Europe’s new economic climate has largely fostered the trend toward independence. The current generation of home-aloners came of age during Europe’s shift from social democracy to the sharper, more individualistic climate of American style capitalism. Raised in an era of privatization and increased consumer choice, today’s tech-savvy(精通技术的) workers have embraced a free market in love as well as economics. Modern Europeans are rich enough to afford to live alone, and temperamentally independent enough to want to do so.

Once upon a time, people who lived alone tended to be those on either side of marriage-twentysomething professionals or widowed senior citizens. While pensioners, particularly elderly women, make up a large proportion of those living alone, the newest crop of singles are high earners in their 30s and 40s who increasingly view living alone as a lifestyle choice. Living alone was conceived to be negative-dark and cold, while being together suggested warmth and light. But then came along the idea of singles. They were young, beautiful, strong! Now, young people want to live alone.

The booming economy means people are working harder than ever. And that doesn’t leave much room for relationships. Pimpi Arroyo, a 35-year-old composer who lives alone in a house in Paris, says he hasn’t got time to get lonely because he has too much work. “I have deadlines which would make life with someone else fairly difficult.” Only an Ideal Woman would make him change his lifestyle, he says. Kaufmann, author of a recent book called “The Single Woman and Prince Charming,” thinks this fierce new individualism means that people expect more and more of mates, so relationships don’t last long-if they start at all. Eppendorf, a blond Berliner with a deep tan, teaches grade school in the mornings. In the afternoon she sunbathes or sleeps, resting up for going dancing. Just shy of 50, she says she’d never have wanted to do what her mother did-give up a career to raise a family. Instead, I’ve always done what I wanted to do: live a self-determined life.

16. More and more young Europeans remain single because        .

A) they are driven by an overwhelming sense of individualism

B) they have entered the workforce at a much earlier age

C) they have embraced a business culture of stability

D) they are pessimistic about their economic future


17. What is said about European society in the passage?

A) It has fostered the trend towards small families.

B) It is getting closer to American-style capitalism.

C) It has limited consumer choice despite a free market.

D) It is being threatened by irresistible privatization.


18. According to Paragraph 3, the newest group of singles are         .

A) warm and lighthearted      B) on either side of marriage

C) negative and gloomy       D) healthy and wealthy


19. The author quotes Eppendorf to show that        .

A) some modern women prefer a life of individual freedom

B) the family is no longer the basic unit of society in present-day Europe

C) some professional people have too much work to do to feel lonely

D) most Europeans conceive living a single life as unacceptable


20. What is the author’s purpose in writing the passage?

A) To review the impact of women becoming high earners.

B) To contemplate the philosophy underlying individualism.

C) To examine the trend of young people living alone.

D) To stress the rebuilding of personal relationships.

Passage Three

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

Supporters of the biotech industry have accused an American scientist of misconduct after she testified to the New Zealand government that a genetically modified(GM) bacterium could cause serious damage if released.

The New Zealand Life Sciences Network, an association of pro-GM scientists and organisations, says the view expressed by Elaine Ingham, a soil biologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, was exaggerated and irresponsible. It has asked her university to discipline her.

But Ingham stands by her comments and says the complaints are an attempt to silence her. They’re trying to cause trouble with my university and get me fired, Ingham told New Scientist.

The controversy began on 1 February, when Ingham testified before New Zealand’s Royal Commission on Genetic Modification, which will determine how to regulate GM organisms. Ingham claimed that a GM version of a common soil bacterium could spread and destroy plants if released into the wild. Other researchers had previously modified the bacterium to produce alcohol from organic waste. But Ingham says that when she put it in soil with wheat plants, all of the plants died within a week.

“We would lose terrestrial(陆生的) plants...this is an organism that is potentially deadly to the continued survival of human beings,” she told the commission. She added that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) canceled its approval for field tests using the organism once she had told them about her research in 1999.

But last week the New Zealand Life Sciences Network accused Ingham of presenting inaccurate, careless and exaggerated information and generating speculative doomsday scenarios(世界末日的局面) that are not scientifically supportable. They say that her study doesn’t even show that the bacteria would survive in the wild, much less kill massive numbers of plants. What’s more, the network says that contrary to Ingham’s claims, the EPA was never asked to consider the organism for field trials.

The EPA has not commented on the dispute. But an e-mail to the network from Janet Anderson, director of the EPA’s bio-pesticides(生物杀虫剂) division, says there is no record of a review and/or clearance to field test the organism.

Ingham says EPA officials had told her that the organism was approved for field tests, but says she has few details. It’s also not clear whether the organism, first engineered by a German institute for biotechnology, is still in use.

Whether Ingham is right or wrong, her supporters say opponents are trying unfairly to silence her.

“I think her concerns should be taken seriously. She shouldn’t be harassed in this way,”  says Ann Clarke, a plant biologist at the University of Guelph in Canada who also testified before the commission. It’s n attempt to silence the opposition.

21. The passage centers on the controversy         .

A) between American and New Zealand biologists over genetic modification

B) as to whether the study of genetic modification should be continued

C) over the possible adverse effect of a GM bacterium on plants

D) about whether Elaine Ingham should be fired by her university


22. Ingham insists that her testimony is based on         .

A) evidence provided by the EPA of the United States

B) the results of an experiment she conducted herself

C) evidence from her collaborative research with German biologists

D) the results of extensive field tests in Corvallis, Oregon


23. According to Janet Anderson, the EPA        .

A) has cancelled its approval for field tests of the GM organism

B) hasn’t reviewed the findings of Ingham’s research

C) has approved field tests using the GM organism

D) hasn’t given permission to field test the GM organism


24. According to Ann Clarke, the New Zealand Life Sciences Network         .

A) should gather evidence to discredit Ingham’s claims

B) should require that the research by their biologists be regulated

C) shouldn’t demand that Ingham be disciplined for voicing her views

D) shouldn’t appease the opposition in such a quiet way


25. Which of the following statements about Ingham is TRUE?

A) Her testimony hasn’t been supported by the EPA.

B) Her credibility as a scientist hasn’t been undermined.

C) She is firmly supported by her university.

D) She has made great contributions to the study of GM bacteria.

Passage Four

Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

Every fall, like clockwork, Linda Krentz of Beaverton, Oregon, felt her brain go on strike. I just couldn’t get going in the morning, she says. I’d get depressed and gain 10 pounds every winter and lose them again in the spring. Then she read about seasonal affective disorder, a form of depression that occurs in fall and winter, and she saw the light-literally. Every morning now she turns on a specially constructed light box for half an hour and sits in front of it to trick her brain into thinking it’s still enjoying those long summer days. It seems to work.

Krentz is not alone. Scientists estimate that 10 million Americans suffer from seasonal depression and 25 million more develop milder versions. But there’s never been definitive proof that treatment with very bright lights makes a difference. After all, it’s hard to do a double-blind test when the subjects can see for themselves whether or not the light is on. That’s why nobody has ever separated the real effects of light therapy from placebo(安慰剂) effects.

Until now. In three separate studies published last month, researchers report not only that light therapy works better than a placebo but that treatment is usually more effective in the early morning than in the evening. In two of the groups, the placebo problem was resolved by telling patients they were comparing light boxes to a new anti-depressant device that emits negatively charged ions(离子). The third used the timing of light therapy as the control.

Why does light therapy work? No one really knows. Our research suggests it has something to do with shifting the body’s internal clock, says psychiatrist Dr. Lewey. The body is programmed to start the day with sunrise, he explains, and this gets later as the days get shorter. But why such subtle shifts make some people depressed and not others is a mystery.

That hasn’t stopped thousands of winter depressives from trying to heal themselves. Light boxes for that purpose are available without a doctor’s prescription. That bothers psychologist Michael Terman of Columbia University. He is worried that the boxes may be tried by patients who suffer from mental illness that can’t be treated with light. Terman has developed a questionnaire to help determine whether expert care is needed.

In any event, you should choose a reputable manufacturer. Whatever product you use should emit only visible light, because ultraviolet light damages the eyes. If you are photosensitive(对光敏感的), you may develop a rash. Otherwise, the main drawback is having to sit in front of the light for 30 to 60 minutes in the morning. That’s an inconvenience many winter depressives can live with.

26. What is the probable cause of Krentz’s problem?

A) An unexpected gain in body weight.

B) Unexplained impairment of her nervous system.

C) Weakening of her eyesight with the setting in of winter.

D) Poor adjustment of her body clock to seasonal changes.


27. By saying that Linda Krentz “saw the light”(Line 4, Para. 1), the author means that she “         ”.

A) learned how to lose weight

B) realized what her problem was

C) came to see the importance of light

D) became light-hearted and cheerful


28. What is the CURRENT view concerning the treatment of seasonal depression with bright lights?

A) Its effect remains to be seen.

B) It serves as a kind of placebo.

C) It proves to be an effective therapy.

D) It hardly produces any effects.


29. What is psychologist Michael Terman’s major concern?

A) Winter depressives will be addicted to using light boxes.

B) No mental patients would bother to consult psychiatrists.

C) Inferior light boxes will emit harmful ultraviolet lights.

D) Light therapy could be misused by certain mental patients.


30. Which of the following statements is TRUE?

A) Winter depressives prefer light therapy in spite of its inconvenience.

B) Light therapy increases the patient’s photosensitivity.

C) Eye damage is a side effect of light therapy.

D) Light boxes can be programmed to correspond to shifts in the body clock.

Part Vocabulary (20 minutes)

Directions: There are 30 incomplete sentences in this part. For each sentence there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Choose the NOE answer that best completes the sentence. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

31. Susan has       the elbows of her son’s jacket with leather patches to make it more durable.

A) reinforced                            B) sustained

C) steadied                              D) confirmed

32. Although we tried to concentrate on the lecture, we were         by the noise form the next room.

A) distracted                             B) displaced

C) dispersed                             D) discarded

33. The reason why so many children like to eat this new brand of biscuit is that it is particularly sweet and          .

A) fragile                               B) feeble

C) brisk                                D) crisp

34. Don’t trust the speaker any more, since the remarks he made in his lectures are never    with the facts.

A) symmetrical                          B) comparative

C) compatible                           D) harmonious

35. They had to eat a(n)      meal, or they would be too late for the concert.

A) temporary                            B) hasty

C) immediate                            D) urgent

36. Having a(n)      attitude towards people with different ideas is an indication that one has been well educated.

A) analytical                             B) bearable

C) elastic                                D) tolerant

37. No form of government in the world is       ; each system reflects the history and present needs of the region or the nation.

A) dominant                             B) influential

C) integral                               D) drastic

38. In spite of the        economic forecast, manufacturing output has risen slightly.

A) faint                                 B) dizzy

C) gloomy                              D) opaque

39. Too often Dr. Johnson’s lectures      how to protect the doctor rather than how to cure the patient.

A) look to                               B) dwell on

C) permeate into                          D) shrug off

40. Located in Washington D.C., the Library of Congress contains an impressive      of books on every conceivable subject.

A) flock                                 B) configuration

C) pile                                  D) array

41. Some felt that they were hurrying into an epoch of unprecedented enlightenment, in which better education and beneficial technology would      wealth and leisure for all.

A) maintain                              B) ensure

C) certify                                D) console

42. Fiberoptic cables can carry hundreds of telephone conversations       .

A) homogeneously                         B) spontaneously

C) simultaneously                          D) ingeniously

43. Excellent films are those which      national and cultural barriers.

A) transcend                              B) traverse

C) abolish                                D) suppress

44. The law of supply and demand will eventually take care of a shortage or      of dentists.

A) surge                                 B) surplus

C) flush                                  D) fluctuation

45. One third of the Chinese in the United States live in California,      in the San Francisco area.

A) remarkably                            B) severely

C) drastically                             D) predominantly

46. After the terrible accident, I discovered that my ear was becoming less       .

A) sensible                               B) sensitive

C) sentimental                            D) sensational

47. Now the cheers and applause      in a single sustained roar.

A) mingled                               B) tangled

C) baffled                                D) huddled

48. Among all the public holidays, National Day seems to be the most joyful to the people of the country; on that day the whole country is       in a festival atmosphere.

A) trapped                                B) sunk

C) soaked                                D) immersed

49. The wooden cases must be secured by overall metal strapping so that they can be strong enough to stand rough handling during       .

A) transit                                B) motion

C) shift                                  D) traffic

50. Nowadays many rural people flock to the city to look for jobs on the assumption that the streets there are      with gold.

A) overwhelmed                          B) stocked

C) paved                                D) overlapped

51. It is a wellknown fact that the cat family      lions and tigers.

A) enriches                               B) accommodates

C) adopts                                D) embraces

52. My boss has failed me so many times that I no longer place any       on what he promises.

A) assurance                              B) probability

C) reliance                                D) conformity

53. The English language contains a      of words which are comparatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

A) latitude                                 B) multitude

C) magnitude                               D) longitude

54. It was such a(n)  when Pat and Mike met each other in Tokyo. Each thought that the other was still in Hong Kong.

A) occurrence                               B) coincidence

C) fancy                                   D) destiny

55. Parents have to learn how to follow a bodys behavior and adapt the tone of their      to the badys capabilities.

A) perceptions                              B) consultations

C) interactions                              D) interruptions

56. Governments today play an increasingly larger role in the      of welfare, economics, and education.

A) scopes                                  B) ranges

C) ranks                                   D) domains

57. If businessmen are taxed too much, they will no longer be       to work hard, with the result that tax revenues might actually shrink.

A) cultivated                               B) licensed

C) motivated                               D) innovated

58. Jack is not very decisive, and he always finds himself in a       as if he doesn’t know what he really wants to do.

A) fantasy                                  B) dilemma

C) contradiction                             D) conflict

59. He is a promising young man who is now studying at our graduate school. As his supervisor, I would like to      him to your notice.

A) commend                                B) decree

C) presume                                 D) articulate

60. It was a wonderful occasion which we will      for many years to come.

A) conceive                                 B) clutch

C) contrive                                  D) cherish


Part Cloze (15 minutes)

Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on the Answer Sheet with a single line through the centre.

Although there are many skillful Braille readers, thousands of other blind people find it difficult to learn that system. They are thereby shut    61    from the world of books and newspapers, having to    62    on friends to read aloud to them.

A young scientist named Raymond Kurzweil has now designed a computer which is a major    63    in providing aid to the    64   . His machine, Cyclops, has a camera that    65    any page, interprets the print into sounds, and then delivers them orally in a robot-like    66    through a speaker. By pressing the appropriate buttons    67    Cyclops’s keyboard, a blind person can read any    68    document in the English language.

This remarkable invention represents a tremendous    69    forward in the education of the handicapped. At present, Cyclops costs 50,000.   70   , Mr. Kurzweil and his associates are preparing a smaller    71    improved version that will sell    72    less than half that price. Within a few years, Kurzweil    73    the price range will be low enough for every school and library to    74    one. Michael Hingson, Director of the National Federation for the Blind, hopes that    75    will be able to buy home    76    of Cyclops for the price of a good television set.

Mr. Hingson’s organization purchased five machines and is now testing them in Maryland, Colorado, Iowa, California, and New York. Blind people have been    77    in those tests, making lots of    78    suggestions to the engineers who helped to produce Cyclops.

This is the first time that blind people have ever done individual studies    79    a product was put on the market,” Hingson said. “Most manufacturers believed that having the blind help the blind was like telling disabled people to teach other disabled people. In that    80   , the manufacturers have been the blind ones.”

61. A) up B) down C) in D) off

62. A) dwell B) rely C) press D) urge

63. A) execution B) distinction C) breakthrough D) process

64. A) paralyzed B) uneducated C) invisible D) sightless

65. A) scans B) enlarges C) sketches D) projects

66. A) behavior B) expression C) movement D) voice

67. A) on B) at C) in D) from

68. A) visual B) printed C) virtual D) spoken

69. A) stride B) trail C) haul D) footprint

70. A) Likewise B) Moreover C) However D) Though

71. A) but B) than C) or D) then

72. A) on B) for C) through D) to

73. A) estimates B) considers C) counts D) determines

74. A) settle B) own C) invest D) retain

75. A) schools B) children C) families D) companies

76. A) models B) modes C) cases D) collections

77. A) producing B) researching C) ascertaining D) assisting

78. A) true B) valuable C) authentic D) pleasant

79. A) after B) when C) before D) as

80. A) occasion B) moment C) sense D) event

Section B Compound Dictation

Certain phrases one commonly hears among Americans capture their devotion to individualism: “Do you own thing.” ”I did it my way.” ”You’ll have to decided that for yourself.” “You made your bed, now (S1) in it.” “if you don’t look out for yourself, no one else will.” “Look out for number one.”

Closely (S2) with the value they place on indi8vidualism is the importance Americans (S3) to privacy. Americans assume that people need some time to themselves or some time alone to think about things or recover their (S4) psychological energy. Americans have great (S5) understanding foreigners who always want to be with another person who dislike being alone.

If the parents can (S6) it, each child will have his or her own bedroom. Having one’s own bedroom, her books, her books and so on. These things will be hers and no one else’s.

Americans assumer that (S9). Doctors, lawyers, psychologists, and others have rules governing confidentiality that are intended to prevent information about their clients’ personal situations form becoming known to others.

American’s attitude about privacy can be hard for foreigners to understand. (10) . When those boundaries are crossed , an American’s body will visibly stiffen and his manner will become cool and aloof.


Part                        Writing

In this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Say No to Pirated Products.

1.       目前盗版的现象比较严重

2.       造成这种现象的原因及危害

3.       我们应该怎么做?

盗版 piracy (n.) 盗版产品 pirated products 知识产权 intellectual property rights 侵犯版权 infringe sb’s copyright; copyright infringement

Say No to Pirated Products



1-5.CBDCA       6-10.CBDAB

11-15.BCADD     16-20.ABDAC

21-25.CBBCA     26-30.DBCDA

31-35.AADCB     36-40.DACBD

41-45.BCABD     46-50.BADAC

51-55.DCBBA     56-60.DCBAD

61-65.DBCDA     66-70.DABAC

71-75.ABABC     76-80.ADBCC


S1. lie   S2 associated   S3. assign  S4. spent  S5. difficulty   S6. afford   S7 infant

S8. she is entitled to a place of her own where she can be by herself, and keep her possessions

S9. people will have their private thoughts that might never be shared with anyone

S10. American’s houses, yards and even offices can seem open and inviting. Yet in the minds of Americans, there are boundaries that other people are simply not supposed to cross.