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英语六级考试改错题训练(四)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午11:30
  三、代词使用错误

  代词的主要功能是指代已出现的名词、词组或一个意群,因此代词的出现必有所指,而且形、数等必须与前面所代的部分相符,这是代词的改错的核心。代词错误是短文改错中出现频率较高的几类错误之一,几乎每套试题都有,主要涉及如下几种情况:

  1 . 指代错误。主要是第三人称代词指代的误用;不定代词 one 和 those 与人称代词 you 和 them 的混用及人于指物的误用等。

  2. 关系代词的误用。主要为 that 与 which , who 与 which , as 与 which 的误用; what 与 that 的混用。

  3. 形式代词 it 与 this , that 的误用。如: find this important to preview the lesson (这里的 this 应改为形式宾语 it )。

  4. 不定代词的误用。主要为不定代词与指示代词 these 或人称代词的误用; someone/somebody , everyone/everybody 被误用作复数指代; some- , any- 集合成代词与 no- 类合成代词的混用等。

  例 1

  A knowledge of several languages is essential to

  other majors’ study because without them one 1.__________

  can read books only in translation.

  本句中 without them 指的是:没有几们语言的知识。这里错误地使用了 them 来指代 a knowledge of several languages ,因为其中 knowledge 是中心词,所以要把 them 改为 it 。

  例 2

  To be frank, that is a great relief to have the task 1.__________

  fulfilled in so short a time.

  本句中 that 指的是“ to have the task fulfilled in so short a time ”,前者是后者的形式主语,而形式主语只能是 it ,因此必须把 that 改为 it 。

  例 3

  The teacher asked them who had completed their 1.__________

  tests to leave the room as quietly as possible.

  这句话看似没有错误,结果也十分完整,然而,它将代词宾格 them 与指示代词 those 的用法混淆了。因为一般来说,人称代词后面应该保留有修饰成分,如果保留 them ,那么这句话则必须改为: The teacher asked them to leave the room as quietly as possible. 这不符合修改的规则,故只能将 them 改为 those ,此时 those 作为指示代词,后面可以接有从句成分。

  例 4

  Western culture tends to ignore or take it for granted 1.__________

  the non-verbal part of conversations, defining good

  communication as " speaking well" .

  本句中, it 作为形式主语,一般用于结构“ take it for granted that… ”,然而本句中没有出现从句,而只有名词短语“ the non-verbal part of conversation ”作为宾语,因此不需要形式宾语,应该将 it 删去。

  通过上述例题可以发现,英语代词虽然数量不多,但是种类却不少,且各种代词有性、数、格、人称之别,必须在平时学习多注意总结和归纳,才可以正确的把握其用法。下面通过一些练习题来加深印象。

  练习题

  1 First and most important is its extraordinary receptive

  and adaptable heterogeneousness --- the ease

  and readiness with that has taken to itself material 1.__________

  from almost everywhere in the world and has made

  the old elements of language its own.

  2 In most advanced English courses, time is usually

  set aside for conversation lessons. This can be 2.__________

  the most difficult and most rewarding of all

  the lessons the teacher is called upon to conduct.

  3 They gain such mental food that few companions 3.__________

  can supply. Even while resting from their labors

  they are, through the books they read, equipping

  themselves to perform those labors more inefficiently.

  4 Before the time of Galileo, learned men believed

  that large bodies fell more rapidly towards the earth

  than small one, because Aristotle said so. 4.__________

  5 But Galileo, going to the top of the Leaning Tower

  of Pisa, let fall two unequal stones, and proved to some

  friends, he had brought there to see his experiment, 5.__________

  that Aristotle was in error.

  6 Deep in the dense forest these tourists finally

  found the place where they visited ten years ago. 6.__________

  7 It was a beautifully decorated ancient house which 7.__________

  door opened to the east.

  8 What has been left was a table in one corner of

  the living-room which two legs were broken. 8.__________

  9 Some people think of the protection of our

  environment as the mere protection of a few

  animals and flowers. Actually natural conversation

  is far from that some people imagine to be. 9.__________

  10 It has become a question of whether man can

  survive at all in the world in which he is creating. 10.__________

  答案解析:

  1.本题中应该将that改为which。“that”不能作为介词宾语的关系代词,而只能使用which。

  2.本题中应该将this改为these。根据上下文可知此处应该指代为conversation lessons。

  3.本题中应该将that改为as或者删去such。此句中that引导后面定语从句修饰前面mental food,然后却不能和such一起使用,因此必须修改其中一处。“such…as…”也可以引导定语从句的固定搭配,因此可将that改为as。另一种办法是删去such,原句则变为that引导的定语从句。

  4.本题中应该将one改为ones。该处one根据文意应该指代的是bodies。

  5.本题中应该在he之后加上关系代词whom。根据上下文可知,这里“he had brought there to see his experiment”为前面“some friends”的非限定性定语从句,然后却没有关系代词,使得句子结构不完整,显然,必须在he前面加上人称关系代词whom。

  6.本题中应该将where改为that或者which。该处where为关系副词,而原句中缺少一个关系代词,既指代前文的“the place”,又作为“visited”的宾语。

  7.本题中应该将which改为whose。原句中“which door”并非指代先行词“house”,而是属于其中的部分之一,应该使用关系代词的所有格形式whose。

  8.本题中应该将which改为whose。道理同上。

  9.本题中应该将that改为what。原句中“some people imagine to be”结构不完整,缺少主语,而that引导名词性从句时只起引导作用,不在句中作任何成分。

  10.本题中应该将in删去。定语从句引导词“which”在引导后面定语从句“he is creating”时充当其宾语成分,因为create为及物动词,后面必须接宾语才可以符合语法规则。

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