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英语六级考试改错题训练(十三)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:46
  九、句子结构的错误

  在英语中按句型来说可以分为陈述句、疑问句、祈使句和感叹句四种,从结构上来说又可以分为简单句、并列句和复合句三种。句子的结构错误是构成句子完整结构的某一成分用错或者缺少,或者使用了多于成分而造成句意不清的错误类型。由于英语语法和汉语语法特点在结构上表现得十分明显,主、谓、宾结构在数、格、人称上的一致、连接手段的正确使用以及词序安排等,都与汉语有着相当大的差异,因此在改错中也是一大难点。句子结构错误类型包括:句子类型使用错误、句子成分短缺、平行结构错误以及词组搭配使用错误。

  例 1

  Computer analyzed marketing reports can help

  deciding which products to emphasize now, which

  to develop for the future, and which to be dropped. 1.__________

  本句中三个平行成分 which products to emphasize now, which to develop for the future, and which to be dropped 结构模式应该一致,均采用不定式主动语态,因而 to be dropped 应改为 to drop 。

  例 2

  When we consider the comfortable circumstances

  of a working family today, the life of the workingman

  in 1882 seems miserable indeed. But earlier it had

  been ever hard. 1.__________

  根据上文中“ earlier ”可知,原句显然是将 1882 年以前的生活与 1882 年时的生活作比较,所以此处 hard 应该改为 harder 。

  例 3

  At the beginning of the nineteenth century working

  hours were from sunrise to sunset, pay was awful,

  and working conditions being poor and dangerous. 1.__________

  在该句中, working hours were from sunrise to sunset, pay was awful, and working conditions being poor and dangerous 三个小分句为并列结构关系,因此必须保持成分和结构上的一致性,故应该将 being 改为 were 。

  例 4

  However, a second person thought that this was

  more a question of civilized behavior as good 1.__________

  manners.

  “ more…than… ”是固定搭配用法,在此句中表示“与其…不如…”的意思,而不是“比…多”的意思;没有“ more…as… ”的搭配用法,故应该将 as 改为 than 。

  练习题

  1 On the contrary, the intimate atmosphere of the

  small college allows the student four years of structural

  living in which to expect and preparing for the real world. 1.__________

  2 In making his choice among educational institutions

  the student must, therefore, consider a great many factors.

  Going to school is part of the socialization process,

  and so going to the movies. 2.__________

  3 The next morning the sun rose like a red ball on the

  eastern horizon. But somehow after breakfast it hid

  itself behind patches of clouds but it seemed a rain was 3.__________

  apparent.

  4 But luckily, no sooner had we entered the car when it 4.__________

  suddenly began to rain.

  5 That is worthy of note about these two groups is that 5.__________

  among the 40 people there are only two women.

  6 Women members are so less than members that we 6.__________

  again think of the outdated prejudice that women are

  inferior in intelligence.

  7 The best way to avoid using dictionaries when you

  are reading English books is to try to remember many 7.__________

  words as you can.

  8 It is just on that day when I bumped into Miss Helen 8.__________

  on my way to work.

  9 It is in the cinema not on the street where he lost his 9.__________

  wallet which contained $ 1,000 in it.

  10 In the future passengers ships will be built to travel

  undersea, and special underwater ships will be designed

  for mining, fishing, and to exploring unknown areas. 10.__________

  答案解析:

  1.preparing→prepare。属于平行结构中的动词错误。在并列连词and前后显然要有形式一致的动词,但前面没有与preparing呼应的现在分词(注:同行中的living是in which中which的先行词,故一定是名词,而不是现在分词——这是词形表面上的干扰),故只能改动preparing使之与前面的动词不定式expect一致,这里也有考生将preparing改为prepares,用意是与句中谓语动词allows一致,但要注意,句中不定式expect是及物动词,它的宾语是“the real world”,必须与prepare for共享。

  2.so后面加is。该句是一个并列句,第一个分词结构是完整的,主语由动名词“going to school”担当,第二个分词表语部分与前面相同。为避免重复,而使用代词so,但是谓语不能省略,必须加上is才是完整的结构。

  3.but→and。

  4.when→than。“no sooner…than…”和“hardly…when…”是固顶结构,相互之间不能交换使用。

  5.that→what。该句结构比较复杂,前面整个句子作为主语,但是that不能作为主语从句的主语成分,因此改成what。

  6.less→fewer。

  7.many前加as。

  8.when→that。因为该句是一个强调句,所强调成分的代词除了在所强调成分为“人”时使用who或者that的情况外,一律使用that。

  9.where→that。

  10.删除to。

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