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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(六)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:44
  Passage Two

  As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease—especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits, smoking, and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the right weight, but does not eat very nutritious (有营养的) foods, who feels OK but exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not an outstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal blood counts, but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. He may not even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imagine that this person could be a lot healthier.

  The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely “not ill” and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body’s special needs. Both types have simply been called “well.” In recent years, however, some health specialists have begun to apply the terms “well” and “wellness” only to those who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health. People who are well are concerned with nutrition and exercise, and they make a point of monitoring their body’s condition. Most important, perhaps, people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related to their health. Even people who have a physical disease or handicap (缺陷) may be “well,” in this new sense, if they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations. “Wellness” may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people face the challenges of daily life.

  62. Today medical care is placing more stress on ________.

  A) keeping people in a healthy physical condition

  B) monitoring patients’ body functions

  C) removing people’s bad living habits

  D) ensuring people’s psychological well-being

  63. In the first paragraph, people are reminded that ________.

  A) good health is more than not being ill

  B) drinking, even if not to excess, could be harmful

  C) regular health checks are essential to keeping fit

  D) prevention is more difficult than cure(B)

  64. Traditionally, a person is considered “well” if he ________.

  A) does not have any unhealthy living habits

  B) does not have any physical handicaps

  C) is able to handle his daily routines

  D) is free from any kind of disease(D)

  65. According to the author, the true meaning of “wellness” is for people ________.

  A) to best satisfy their body’s special needs

  B) to strive to maintain the best possible health

  C) to meet the strictest standards of bodily health

  D) to keep a proper balance between work and leisure(B)

  66. According to what the author advocates, which of the following groups of people would be considered healthy?

  A) People who have strong muscles as well as slim figures.

  B) People who are not presently experiencing any symptoms of disease.

  C) People who try to be as possible, regardless of their limitations.

  D) People who can recover from illness even without seeking medical care.(C)

  这篇文章讲述了当今社会“健康”概念的新发展。全文比较少见地一共只有两大段(很有可能是英文原版文章的节选),第一段开头介绍了当今社会人们医疗观念的转变,即人们关注的焦点正在从治疗转变为预防。这一现象是众所周知的,作者可以借此不动声色地引出了文章的论题——健康观念的转变问题。在此之后,作者立即把笔锋指向正题,提出这种观念上的转变其实还可以探究得更为深入(The line of thought involved in this shift can be pursued further)。在第一段的其余部分,作者使用了一系列does……but句型,对一种健康状态进行了具体的描述,最后指出这种程度上的“健康”其实还有改善的余地(could be a lot healthier)。

  第一段完成了对一种健康但又不够健康的状态的具体描述,第二段开头则指出传统观念未对not ill(不得病)和excellent health(身体极佳)进行区分,都称为健康(well),那么读到这里,显然可以判断第一段描述的是not ill这一概念。

  此后作者提出一种观点,即只有那些积极努力保持和改善健康状态的人(who are actively striving to maintain and improve their health)才可称是“健康的”(well)或达到了“健康状态”(wellness)。之后作者分别对well和wellness作了具体的解释。

  62. Today medical care is placing more stress on ________.

  A) keeping people in a healthy physical condition

  B) monitoring patients’ body functions

  C) removing people’s bad living habits

  D) ensuring people’s psychological well-being

  题目问当今的医疗正更为注重什么。这道题较为简单。文章开头说道:the focus of medical care in our society has been shifting from curing disease to preventing disease—especially in terms of changing our many unhealthy behaviors,意思是社会的医疗焦点正从治病变为防病,尤其是在改变人们不健康的行为方面。Shifting是转变的意思,使用了进行时态,与题目中的placing一样,说明这种转变正在发生之中。而题目中的more一词可以体现出“转变”的含义。(C)

  四个题支的意思是:

  A,使人们的身体状况保持健康状态。

  B,跟踪监控病人的身体机能。

  C,祛除人们坏的生活习惯。

  D,保证人们的心理健康。

  A和D分别讲的生理健康和心理健康,在文中没有提到过心理健康问题,可以排除D,而A所说的“保持健康状态”较为空泛,可以把第一段提到的治病(curing disease)和防病(preventing disease)都包括进去,但文中的转变恰恰是治病与防病之间的转变,这个意思在A中无法体现出来。

  B专指病人(patients),讲的是医生对病人的治疗问题,而全篇文章中心思想是无病的人如何才算得到真正的健康,与病人的治疗无关。

  C讲的是祛除坏习惯,与changing our many unhealthy behaviors意思接近,unhealthy behviors在很大程度上可以是不健康的生活习惯。

  63. In the first paragraph, people are reminded that ________.

  A) good health is more than not being ill

  B) drinking, even if not to excess, could be harmful

  C) regular health checks are essential to keeping fit

  D) prevention is more difficult than cure

  题目问在第一段中,人们受到何种教导。

  A,好健康不仅仅是没有得病。第一段在上半部分指出在医疗焦点的转变问题上,可以讨论得更为深入一点(can be pursued further),而后以类似于汉语里的排比句的形式列举了某种健康状态的具体表现,最后以This person is not ill(无病)、this person could be a lot healthier(可以更健康)结尾,作者的意图非常好明显,好健康远不止是不得病。A的说法正确。

  B,饮酒,即便不过量,也是对身体有害的。文中关于饮酒的叙述是这样的:who drinks a few beers at home most nights but does not drive while drunk,意思是这个人多数夜晚都在家里喝些啤酒,但从不酒后驾车,a few beers可以看做是没有过量的喝酒,否则就会用a lot of。第一段结尾对这个人的评价是This person is not ill,意即不算十分健康,但也不会得病。这句话说明作者没有把适度喝酒看做是不健康的行为,因此B的说法不对。

  C,定期进行身体检查对保持健康是必要的。第一段中没有出现身体检查的内容。

  D,预防比治疗更加困难。文章提到预防与治疗是说人们在医疗上的关注点从治疗转变到了预防(from curing disease to preventing disease),没有说哪一个更为困难。

  64. Traditionally, a person is considered “well” if he ________.

  A) does not have any unhealthy living habits

  B) does not have any physical handicaps

  C) is able to handle his daily routines

  D) is free from any kind of disease

  题目问传统上讲,一个人在何种情况下会被视为“健康的”(well)。可以看到第二段在开头提到了传统健康观点:The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished between someone who is merely “not ill” and someone who is in excellent health and pays attention to the body’s special needs. Both types have simply been called “well.”。这个句子的主语是医学界(The field of medicine),谓语是“未作区分”,而后使用了一个between……and句型,引出未作区分的二个对象,第二个and之后的pays其主语依然是医学界,因为它使用了第三人称单数形式,和前面的has一致。副词traditionally限定了这段描述的对象是传统医疗观点。这句话的意思是传统医学界未对仅仅“没有得病”和“十分健康”做出区分,而把注意力放在了身体的特殊需求上。这二种情况都被称作了健康。

  四个选项是:

  A,没有任何有害健康的生活习惯。根据文意,这应该是健康新观点的倡导之一。

  B,没有任何生理缺陷。第二段解释“well”观点时提到了handicap,原意是说一个人只要努力追求健康,即使具有生理缺陷也可以是well。这里讲的健康新观点。B的说法错误。

  C,能够处理好日常事务。文章最后一句话提到了daily life,讲到wellness会对daily life产生积极的影响,但这里的wellness同样属于新观点。

  D,没有任何疾病。根据上面的分析,传统医学界没有就“没有得病”和“十分健康”做出区分,即二者完全相等,健康就是没有疾病。D的说法正确。

  65. According to the author, the true meaning of “wellness” is for people ________.

  A) to best satisfy their body’s special needs

  B) to strive to maintain the best possible health

  C) to meet the strictest standards of bodily health

  D) to keep a proper balance between work and leisure

  题目问根据作者的说法,wellness的真实含义是指人们要如何如何。第二段中间部分提到了某些健康专家的健康新观点,而后对well和wellness分别进行了解释。对wellness是这样解释的:“Wellness” may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people can achieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living, the concept of wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people face the challenges of daily life。这段话较易理解,大意为:最好不要把wellness看做是一种人们能够达到的状态,而应该是一种努力追求的理想。健康的人更能够抵御疾病侵袭,或在染病时能更好地与疾病抗争。Wellness的观念让人们把注意力集中在健康的生活方式上,在人们面对日常生活的挑战时,wellness的观念可以施加有益的影响。

  A,最好地满足身体的特殊需求。第二段开头说到满足身体特殊需求(and pays attention to the body’s special needs)是传统医学界的观点,而不是新观点。

  B,努力保持可能的最佳的健康状态。文中把wellness定义为an ideal that people can strive for,strive for是“努力达到”的意思,与B的表述一致。Ideal是理想状况,可以理解为一种可[考试[大]能达到的最佳状况。B的说法正确。

  C,满足身体健康的最为苛刻的标准。文章提到了wellness是一种理想,暗含不容易达到的意思,但理想而不易达到的不见得就是最苛刻的。同时文中也没有提出任何“标准”。

  D,在工作和休闲之间保持良好的平衡。某权威机构给出的答案即是D,应该是从文章最后一句话做出的判断。这句话意思是“Wellness的观念让人们把注意力集中在健康的生活方式上,在人们面对日常生活的挑战时,wellness的观念可以施加有益的影响”。也就是说,如果人们接受了wellness这种观念,就会更注重健康的生活方式,从而有利于人们应对日常生活的挑战。先看前半句,注重健康的生活方式,可以是不抽烟不喝酒,这与工作和休闲的关系无关。再看后半句,日常生活的挑战有可能是工作中的难题,而通过适当的休闲来更有效的应对这些难题的确是可能的。但是,日常生活的挑战也可以不是工作,同时,休闲也不见得就代表了wellness。从哪个方面讲,D的表述都无法说通。

  66. According to what the author advocates, which of the following groups of people would be considered healthy?

  A) People who have strong muscles as well as slim figures.

  B) People who are not presently experiencing any symptoms of disease.

  C) People who try to be as healthy as possible, regardless of their limitations.

  D) People who can recover from illness even without seeking medical care.(C)

  题目问根据作者的主张,下列哪一种人将被视为是健康的。

  A,肌肉发达同时身材苗条。肌肉发达同时又能保持苗条身材,很难想象这是一种什么样的人。至少文中对此未作任何描述。

  B, 当前没有任何疾病症状的人。没有疾病即not ill,在第一段中已经not ill的状况做了详细的描述,这是传统医学界的观点,而在文章中作者倡导的一定是关于健康的新观点。

  C,尽全力追求健康的人,不论其自身有何局限。第二段中间部分曾讲到有缺陷的人也可以是健康的:Even people who have a physical disease or handicap may be “well”,条件是they make an effort to maintain the best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations,即便面对身体局限,也要尽可能地保持最佳健康状况。这一句话正好与C的表述意思一致。

  D,无须求助于医疗就能从疾病中恢复的人。文章末尾部分在具体解释wellness时举的例子包括与D的说法类似的内容:People who are well are likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when it strikes,意思是健康的人更能抵抗疾病侵袭(抗病力强,不易得病),得病后能更好地对抗疾病。后半句与D所说的内容有关,与前文联系起*考试&大来看就是People who are well are likely to be better able to fight disease when it strikes(likely是“很可能”的意思。and后面的to一定是连接able,如果连接likely,意思就是“很可能会去对抗疾病”,意思上讲不通),这里仅仅是说可能会更好地与疾病抗争,没有说不求助于医疗就能恢复。从likely(可能的)和better(更好的)这些词的使用来看,作者所指的健康的人应该不是无须医疗而自愈的铁人。

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