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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(五)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:42
  Passage One

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Reaching new peaks of popularity in North America is Iceberg Water, which is harvested from icebergs off the coast of Newfoundland, Canada.

  Arthur von Wiesenberger, who carries the title Water Master, is one of the few water critics in North America. As a boy, he spent time in the larger cities of Italy, France and Switzerland, where bottled water is consumed daily. Even then, he kept a water journal, noting the brands he liked best. “My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water,” He says.

  But is plain tap water all that bad? Not at all. In fact, New York’s municipal water for more than a century was called the champagne of tap water and until recently considered among the best in the world in terms of both taste and purity. Similarly, a magazine in England found that tap water from the Thames River tasted better than several leading brands of bottled water that were 400 times more expensive.

  Nevertheless, soft-drink companies view bottled water as the next battle-ground for market share—this despite the fact that over 25 percent of bottled water comes from tap water: PepsiCo’s Aquafina and Coca-Cola’s Dasani are both purified tap water rather than spring water.

  As diners thirst for leading brands, bottlers and restaurateurs salivate (垂涎) over the profits. A restaurant’s typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent, whereas on bottled water it’s often 300 to 500 percent. But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care.

  As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sell bottled water. According to an article in The Street Journal, some of the more shameless tactics include placing attractive bottles on the table for a visual sell, listing brands on the menu without prices, and pouring bottled water without even asking the diners if they want it.

  Regardless of how it’s sold, the popularity of bottled water taps into our desire for better health, our wish to appear cultivated, and even a longing for lost purity.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  57. What do we know about Iceberg Water from the passage?

  A) It is a kind of iced water.

  B) It is just plain tap water.

  C) It is a kind of bottled water.

  D) It is a kind of mineral water.(C)

  58. By saying “My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water” (Line 4 Para. 2), von Wiesenberger wants to convey the message that ________.

  A) plain tap water is certainly unfit for drinking

  B) bottled water is clearly superior to tap water

  C) bottled water often appeals more to dogs taste

  D) dogs can usually detect a fine difference in taste(B)

  59. The “fancier brands” (Line 3 Para. 5) refers to ________.

  A) tap water from the Thames River

  B) famous wines not sold in ordinary stores

  C) PepsiCo’s Aquafina and Coca-Cola’s Dasani

  D) expensive bottled water with impressive names(D)

  60. Why are some restaurants turning up the pressure to sell bottled water?

  A) Bottled water brings in huge profits.

  B) Competition from the wine industry is intense.

  C) Most diners find bottled water affordable.

  D) Bottled water satisfied diners’ desire to fashionable.(A)

  61. According to passage, why is bottled water so popular?

  A) It is much cheaper than wine.

  B) It is considered healthier.

  C) It appeals to more cultivated people.

  D) It is more widely promoted in the market.(B)

  这篇文章分析了瓶装水在北美十分流行的原因。

  文章开篇引题,以Iceberg Water为例,说明了瓶装水在北美的火热流行程度,为后文分析其流行的原因做好铺垫。第一段只有一句话,作者把reach谓语提前,使用倒装结构对Iceberg Water达到*考试&大流行顶点这一事实进行强调,这样Iceberg Water置于句末,借以使用非限制性定语从句对这种瓶装水的来源进行描述。

  第二段马上指出了瓶装水流行的原因,但这是借一位瓶装水专家之口来指出媒体普遍的观点:my dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water,含义是瓶装水明显优于自来水。

  第二段的作用无疑是竖靶子以备批驳,第三段紧接着对这种观点进行了分析,并用源自泰晤士河的自来水比几种名牌瓶装水口感更佳为例进行了反驳。

  在接下来的四段中,作者具体分析了瓶装水流行的真正原因。第四段有承上启下的作用,把百事和可口可乐公司作为例子,既以两家公司的瓶装水25%来源于自来水的事实继续反驳瓶装水优于自来水的观点,又以两家公司对瓶装水市场的重视引出瓶装水流行的真正原因。

  第五、六段论证了售卖方式是瓶装水流行原因之一的观点,最后一段指出除售卖方式之外的其他原因(our desire for better health, our wish to appear cultivated, and even a longing for lost purity)。

  57. What do we know about Iceberg Water from the passage?

  A) It is a kind of iced water.

  B) It is just plain tap water.

  C) It is a kind of bottled water.

  D) It is a kind of mineral water.(C)

  本题问从文章可知Iceberg Water指的是什么。

  文章在开头即提到了Iceberg Water,讲到它在北美的人气达到了新的高度,其源头是取自取自加拿大纽芬兰的冰川。从全篇来看,本文以瓶装水为论述的核心,说明其在当今社会的火爆程度,这与开头所述Iceberg Water人气达到新高的叙述意义一致。而在提到Iceberg Water之后的第二段,文章紧接着介绍了一位瓶装水专业人士对瓶装水流行原因的看法。由此来看,Iceberg Water很可能是一种瓶装水,文章以它来开头有引出论题的作用。

  A说是一种冰水,B说是一种普通自来水,C说是一种瓶装水,D说是一种矿物质水。

  C是正确答案。

  58. By saying “My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tap water” (Line 4 Para. 2), von Wiesenberger wants to convey the message that ________.

  A) plain tap water is certainly unfit for drinking

  B) bottled water is clearly superior to tap water

  C) bottled water often appeals more to dogs taste

  D) dogs can usually detect a fine difference in taste

  这句话的意义必须结合上下文来理解。这句话出现在第二段,这一段的意思是:

  Wiesenberger享有饮用水大师的称号,且是北美不多的几位饮用水评论家之一。他小时候曾居住在意大利、法国和瑞士较大的城市中,在这些地方,人们每天都要消费瓶装水。他在那时[考试[大]就订了一份饮用水杂志,留心记下他最喜爱的瓶装水牌子。“我的狗都能分出瓶装水跟自来水的区别。”他说道。

  从这段描述中可以看出,这位饮用水大师自小就对瓶装水兴趣浓厚,甚至为了追踪最喜爱的牌子特意保有一份水杂志。作者的这些叙述显然传达了一个信息:瓶装水可谓是此人的至爱。那么在这种隐含意义下,他所说的瓶装水与自来水的区别决不真正是二者的实在区别,而是要突出瓶装水要优于自来水;连狗都能分辨这种区别,这是一种夸张说法,意在表明二者的差距之大。

  A, 自来水当然不适合饮用。从全文给出的信息来看,自来水是适合引用的,句意本身错误,同时也不符合该句的真实含义。

  B, 瓶装水显而易见地要优于自来水。此说法与前面的分析一致,是正确的。

  C,瓶装水常常更符合狗的口味。Wiesenberger提到狗只是为了起到夸张的效果,并不是瓶装水真的更符合狗的口味。

  D,狗一般能靠味觉发现细微的差别。此项犯的错误与C一样。

  59. The “fancier brands” (Line 3 Para. 5) refers to ________.

  A) tap water from the Thames River

  B) famous wines not sold in ordinary stores

  C) PepsiCo’s Aquafina and Coca-Cola’s Dasani

  D) expensive bottled water with impressive names

  题目问fancier brands指的是什么。

  Fancier应该是fancy的比较级,fancy有“别致、价格高昂的”的意思,brands指品牌。理解它具体的含义还是要看上下文。

  这个词组出现在A restaurant’s typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent, whereas on bottled water it’s often 300 to 500 percent. But since water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brands aren’t available in stores, most diners don’t notice or care一句中,意思是:饭店一般把酒价标高100%到150%,而瓶装水常常会达到300%到500%。不过水要比酒便宜得多,同时许多fancier brands在商店里买不到,因此用餐者就没有注意或者并不在乎。

  从最后一句结论可以推测,fancier brands很有可能是更贵的水品牌,因为如果这些奢侈牌子在商店里买不到,人们就无从知道它的合理价格,即便到了饭店以高价挨宰(标高500%),他们也并不知情,也就注意不到或不会在乎。只有这样逻辑才能通顺。四个选项分别是:

  A, 源自泰晤士河的自来水

  B, 不在普通商店中出售的名牌葡萄酒。

  C,百事的Aquafina和可口可乐的Dasani。

  D,拥有别致名字的昂贵瓶装水。

  四个选项中D符合上文的分析。

  60. Why are some restaurants turning up the pressure to sell bottled water?

  A) Bottled water brings in huge profits.

  B) Competition from the wine industry is intense.

  C) Most diners find bottled water affordable.

  D) Bottled water satisfied diners’ desire to fashionable

  首先了解turn up the pressure的意思,turn up有“提高”的意思,如turn up the radio,提高收音机的音量。turn up the pressure就是加大压力、加大力度的意思。这样题意就是“一些饭店加大力度售卖瓶装水的原因是什么”。

  文中有As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sell bottled water一句,as a result是“所以、因此”的意思,说明前文已经说明了加大力度的原因,答案需要到前一段去找。

  上一段首先提到饭店对销售品牌瓶装水的利润垂涎三尺(restaurateurs salivate over the profits),而后具体说明了其之所以能实现超额利润的原因:消费者对瓶装水合理价格水平一无所知。由此可以推断,饭店大力售卖瓶装水的原因就应该是高额利润的诱使。

  A,瓶装水可以带来巨额利润。符合上面的分析。

  B,来自酒业的竞争十分激烈。文中提到酒业(typical mark-up on wine is 100 to 150 percent)只是为了突出瓶装水的利润丰厚,没有提到二者存在竞争问题。

  C,大多数就餐者认为瓶装水的价格可以接受。文中提到就餐者对价格的反应时是这样叙述的:most diners don’t notice or care,意思是他们不知道瓶装水的真实价格,因此没有注意或不在乎。但饭店老板不会因为自己商品的价格可以被消费者接受而热衷于售卖,这个价格中含有暴利才是原因。

  D,瓶装水满足了就餐者喜欢时尚的需求。文章最后一段解释了瓶装水流行的其他原因,其中有它满足了our wish to appear cultivated,与D的说法稍有接近,但这是从消费者的角度进行的分析,不是饭店老板热衷于售卖瓶装水的原因。

  61. According to passage, why is bottled water so popular?

  A) It is much cheaper than wine.

  B) It is considered healthier.

  C) It appeals to more cultivated people.

  D) It is more widely promoted in the market.

  题目问根据文意瓶装水为什么如此流行。

  文章的最后一段对此做出了说明,直译如下:

  不算其销售方式,饮用瓶装水能够满足我们对健康的更高追求,满足对更有教养的形象的追求,甚至对水的纯净度的追求。

  从这段话可以看出,销售方式(how it’s sold,即第五六、段的分析)是瓶装水流行的一个因素,此外就是文末的三种因素:更高健康、更好形象和纯净度。

  A认为原因是瓶装水比酒便宜。这是第五段的内容:water is much cheaper than wine,不过这里提到水更便宜是为了解释人们为何没有注意到瓶装水价格的虚高。

  B认为原因是人们认为它更为健康,符合另三种因素的第一个:更高健康。

  C认为原因是它能吸引更有教养的人。文中所说的对更有教养的形象的追求(our wish to appear cultivated),是指一个人企望比以前的自己显得更有教养,而不是瓶装水对更有教养的人群的吸引力比对一般教养的人吸引力更大。

  D认为原因是它在市场中得到了更大的推广。瓶装水得到了更大的推广,其意思等同于瓶装水流行,一个句子不能用它本身来解释本身。

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