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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(七)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:46
  Passage One

  Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

  Communications technologies are far from equal when it comes to conveying the truth. The first study to compare honesty across a range of communication media has fund that people are twice as likely to tell lies in phone conversations as they are in emails. The fact that emails are automatically recorded—and can come back to haunt (困扰) you—appears to be the key to the finding.

  Jeff Hancock of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, asked 30 students to keep a communications diary for a week. In it they noted the number of conversations or email exchanges they had lasting more than 10 minutes, and confessed to how many lies they told. Hancock then worked out the number of lies per conversation for each medium. He found that lies made up 14 per cent of emails, 21 per cent of instant messages, 27 per cent of face-to-face interactions and an astonishing 37 per cent of phone calls.

  His results to be presented at the conference on human-computer interaction in Vienna, Austria, in April, have surprised psychologists. Some expected emailers to be the biggest liars, reasoning that because deception makes people uncomfortable, the detachment (非直接接触) of emailing would make it easier to lie. Others expected people to lie more in face-to-face exchanges because we are most practised at that form of communication.

  But Hancock says it is also crucial whether a conversation is being recorded and could be reread, and whether it occurs in real time. People appear to be afraid to lie when they know the communication could later be used to hold them to account, he says. This is why fewer lies appear in email than on the phone.

  People are also more likely to lie in real time—in a instant message or phone call, say—than if they have time to think of a response, says Hancock. He found many lies are spontaneous (脱口而出的) responses to an unexpected demand, such as: “Do you like my dress?”

  Hancock hopes his research will help companies work our the best ways for their employees to communicate. For instance, the phone might be the best medium foe sales where employees are encouraged to stretch the truth. But, given his result, work assessment where honesty is a priority, might be best done using email.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。

  57. Hancock’s study focuses on ________.

  A) the consequences of lying in various communications media

  B) the success of communications technologies in conveying ideas

  C) people are less likely to lie in instant messages

  D) people’s honesty levels across a range of communications media(D)

  58. Hancock’s research finding surprised those who believed that ________.

  A) people are less likely to lie in instant messages

  B) people are unlikely to lie in face-to-face interactions

  C) people are most likely to lie in email communication

  D) people are twice as likely to lie in phone conversations(A)

  59. According to the passage, why are people more likely to tell the truth through certain media of communication?

  A) They are afraid of leaving behind traces of their lies.

  B) They believe that honesty is the best policy.

  C) They tend to be relaxed when using those media.

  D) They are most practised at those forms of communication.(A)

  60. According to Hancock the telephone is a preferable medium for promoting sales because ________.

  A) salesmen can talk directly to their customers

  B) salesmen may feel less restrained to exaggerate

  C) salesmen can impress customers as being trustworthy

  D) salesmen may pass on instant messages effectively(B)

  61. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.

  A) honesty should be encouraged in interpersonal communications

  B) more employers will use emails to communicate with their employees

  C) suitable media should be chosen for different communication purposes

  D) email is now the dominant medium of communication within a company(C)

  这是一篇讲述交流途径与说谎频度的关系的文章。全文共6小段。第一段一共三句话,这三句话对全文内容进行了精炼的介绍。前两句指明有关研究(honesty across a range of communication media,交流媒介不同,诚实程度也不同)的成果:电话交流的说谎频度是电子邮件交流的二倍。最后一句指出了原因:电子邮件可被自动记录,并可以回查。文章随后的5段均是对有关研究的具体情形和现象背后的原因的详述。

  第二段介绍了有关研究的详情:研究者(Jeff Hancock),实验内容(30 students to keep a communications diary for a week),和实验结果(各种媒介的说谎率为14%——37%)。

  第三段指出这个结果十分出人意料(surprised psychologists),为下文进一步说明出现这种结果的原因做好了铺垫。

  随后的第四、五段说明了原因,一个是对话可否被记录和再查(whether a conversation is being recorded and could be reread),一个是对话是否为实时交流(whether it occurs in real time)。

  最后一段指出这一研究成果的用途(elp companies work our the best ways for their employees to communicate)。

  这种在开头先将核心内容和盘托出、随后进行详述的写法是典型的金字塔式写法,在欧美报纸上惯常出现,原因是人们浏览报纸的时间有限,一篇报道必须在开头就将文章大意向读者说明,否则行文拖沓,很可能会被读者抛之一旁。

  57. Hancock’s study focuses on ________.

  A) the consequences of lying in various communications media

  B) the success of communications technologies in conveying ideas

  C) people are less likely to lie in instant messages

  D) people’s honesty levels across a range of communications media(D)

  题目问Hancock的研究集中于什么。文章第一段里讲到有项研究致力于比较不同交流媒介下人们的诚实度问题(The first study to compare honesty across a range of communication media),之后的第二段具体说明了这项研究的细节,该研究的发起人即Jeff Hancock。这样的话,Hancock的研究内容就是to compare honesty across a range of communication media。

  A,在不同交流媒介中说谎的后果。Consequences是后果的意思,暗含的意思是在各个媒介中说谎会得到不同的惩罚。而文中研究的是指结果,相应的英文单词是results,这是区别所在。

  B,交流技术在传达思想上的成功。文章没有讨论交流技术的成功问题。

  C,人们更少地在即时信息中说谎。这只是研究的结果之一。

  D,在不同交流媒介下人们的诚实度。符合上面的分析。

  58. Hancock’s research finding surprised those who believed that ________.

  A) people are less likely to lie in instant messages

  B) people are unlikely to lie in face-to-face interactions

  C) people are most likely to lie in email communication

  D) people are twice as likely to lie in phone conversations(A)

  题目问Hancock的研究发现使一些人感到吃惊,那些人认为……

  该研究发现使心理学家们感到吃惊的描述出现在第三段:His results……have surprised psychologists。在这句话之后,作者用Some expected……others expected的句式叙述了这些人原来的两种看法,一是emailers to be the biggest liars,在电子邮件中说谎最多,二是lie more in face-to-face exchanges,面对面交流中说谎更多。

  A,人们在即时信息中说谎更少。文中给出的两种人的看法一种是电子邮件中说谎最多,另一种认为面对面交流说谎最多,无论这二者中哪一看法都把即时信息看做说谎相对较少的交流媒介,因此A是对的。

  B,人们不太可能在面对面交流中说谎。lie more in face-to-face exchanges这句话已经指出,心理学家们认为面对面交流更有可能性,因此B的说法不对。

  C,人们最可能在电子邮件中说谎。与emailers to be the biggest liars的意思一致,但这只是some的看法,还有others的看法是lie more in face-to-face exchanges,而题目问的是those认为什么,这里的those应该是指some和others都包括在内的心理学家。因此C 的说法是片面的。

  D,人们有二倍的的可能性在电话中说谎。这是第一段中所述的Hancock的研究结果之一,而不是心理学家们原来的看法。

  59. According to the passage, why are people more likely to tell the truth through certain media of communication?

  A) They are afraid of leaving behind traces of their lies.

  B) They believe that honesty is the best policy.

  C) They tend to be relaxed when using those media.

  D) They are most practised at those forms of communication.(A)

  题目问根据文意,为什么人们通过某些交流媒介会更可能说真话。

  文章分析研究结果的原因是在第四和第五段,两段分别指出两种原因,一个是对话可否被记录和再查(whether a conversation is being recorded and could be reread),所说的话被记录的话,人们担心自己的谎话以后会成为把柄,因此更愿意讲真话;一个是对话是否为实时交流(whether it occurs in real time),在实时交流时没有过多思考的时间,一些谎话就脱口而出了(many lies are spontaneous)。

  A,他们担心留下谎话的记录。

  B,他们认为诚实是最好的策略。

  C,他们在使用这类媒介时容易放松。

  D,他们在使用这类媒介时最为老练。

  A符合上面的分析,B和C在文中从来没有提过,D的说法出现在第三段:Others expected people to lie more in face-to-face exchanges because we are most practised at that form of communication,意思是另一些人认为面对面交流中撒谎更多是因为人们使用这种媒介最为熟练。首先这种看法是那些心理学家的看法,其本身是错误的。其次这句话讲的是说谎的原因,而题目问的则是说真话的原因。

  60. According to Hancock the telephone is a preferable medium for promoting sales because ________.

  A) salesmen can talk directly to their customers

  B) salesmen may feel less restrained to exaggerate

  C) salesmen can impress customers as being trustworthy

  D) salesmen may pass on instant messages effectively(B)

  题目问据Hancock的看法,在做销售推广时,电话应是一种更受青睐的媒介,原因是什么。

  在文章最后一段,Hancock提出他的研究成果可以应用于公司员工的交流(help companies work our the best ways for their employees to communicate),而后具体举了两个例子,第一个例子说的就是做销售时最好使用电话,原因是employees are encouraged to stretch the truth。Be encouraged to do是“更敢于做某事”的意思。更敢于做的事是stretch the truth,stretch是伸展、拉长,truth是真相、真实情况,那么把真实情况拉长、扩展就是夸大其实的意思。所以原因应该就是销售员使用电话进行销售时更有勇气言过其实,过于夸大自己产品的好处。

  A,销售员能够与客户直接对话。

  B,销售员可感觉更敢于夸大其词。

  C,销售员能够给客户一个值得信赖的印象。

  D,销售员更能有效的传递*考试&大即时信息。

  可以看出B的说法符合文意。

  61. It can be inferred from the passage that ________.

  A) honesty should be encouraged in interpersonal communications

  B) more employers will use emails to communicate with their employees

  C) suitable media should be chosen for different communication purposes

  D) email is now the dominant medium of communication within a company(C)

  题目问从文章中可以推理出什么。这种题需要结合答案一项项排除。

  A,在人际交流中应该鼓励诚实。从全文来看,文章论述的是不同媒介与诚实度的关系,而对是否应该诚实这种道德判断问题,作者没有涉及。从最后一段来看,作者鼓励在销售时使用电话以便更能夸大其词,由此可以看出作者是不看中诚实与否的问题的。

  B, 更多雇主会使用电子邮件与员工交流。最后一段Hancock举的第二个例子是鼓励人们使用电子邮件的:work assessment where honesty is a priority, might be best done using email。意思是在做工作评估时最好采用电子邮件。但这一建议不是要求雇主们使用电子邮件,而是要求雇员们使用。原因在于最后一段第一句话已经给后面的两个例*考试&大子做了限定:Hancock hopes his research will help companies work out the best ways for their employees to communicate,从for their employees to communicate这句话可以看出,他的建议是针对employees(雇员)的。因此B的说法不对。

  C,应针对不同的交流目的,采取合适的媒介。文章最后举了情况不同的两个例子,每个例子适宜使用的媒介也不同。这说明在特定情况下,应选用特定的交流媒介,与C的说法一致。

  D,电子邮件目前是公司内主要交流媒介。文中没有提到这一点。

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