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发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午10:48
  Many theories concerning the causes of juvenile delinquency (crimes committed by young people) focus either on the individual or on society as the major contributing influence. Theories ___1___ on the individual suggest that children engage in criminal behavior ___2___ they were not sufficiently penalized for previous misdeeds or that they have learned criminal behavior through ___3___ with others. Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in ___4___ to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, ___5___ as a rejection of middle-class values.

  Most theories of juvenile delinquency have focused on children from disadvantaged families, ___6___ the fact that children from wealthy homes also commit crimes. The latter may commit crimes ___7___ lack of adequate parental control. All theories, however, are tentative and are ___8___ to criticism.

  Changes in the social structure may indirectly ___9___ juvenile crime rates. For example, changes in the economy that ___10___ to fewer job opportunities for youth and rising unemployment ___11___ make gainful employment increasingly difficult to obtain. The resulting discontent may in ___12___ lead more youths into criminal behavior.

  Families have also ___13___ changes these years. More families consist of one parent households or two working parents; ___14___, children are likely to have less supervision at home ___15___ was common in the traditional family ___16___. This lack of parental supervision is thought to be an influence on juvenile crime rates.

  Other ___17___ causes of offensive acts include frustration or failure in school, the increased ___18___ of drugs and alcohol, and the growing ___19___ of child abuse and child neglect. All these conditions tend to increase the probability of a child committing a criminal act, ___20___ a direct causal relationship has not yet been established.

  1. [A] acting[B] relying[C] centerin[D] cementing

  2. [A] before[B] unless[C] until[D] because

  3. [A] interaction[B] assimilation[C] cooperation[D] consultation

  4. [A] return[B] reply[C] reference[D] response

  5. [A] or[B] but rather[C] but[D] or else

  6. [A] considering[B] ignoring[C] highlighting[D] discarding

  7. [A] on[B] in[C] for[D] with

  8. [A] immune[B] resistant[C] sensitive[D] subject

  9. [A] affect[B] reduce[C] check[D] reflect

  10. [A] point[B] lead[C] come[D] amount

  11. [A] in general[B] on average[C] by contrast[D] at length

  12. [A] case[B] short[C] turn[D] essence

  13. [A] survived[B] noticed[C] undertaken[D] experienced

  14. [A] contrarily[B] consequently[C] similarly[D] simultaneously

  15. [A] than[B] that[C] which[D] as

  16. [A] system[B] structure[C] concept[D] heritage

  17. [A] assessable[B] identifiable[C] negligible[D] incredible

  18. [A] expense[B] restriction[C] allocation[D] availability

  19. [A] incidence[B] awareness[C] exposure[D] popularity

  20. [A] provided[B] since[C] although[D] supposing


   1.A 由文中第一行的digital divide得出答案。

  2.B obscure模糊的,不清楚的;visible看得见的,明显的;invisible看不见的;indistinct不清楚的,模糊的。空格前的less已有否定意义

  3.A force力量,武力;obstacle障碍;event事件;surprise惊奇,诧异。句意:现在有新的、乐观的力量来对抗数字鸿沟。

  4.C seriously认真地;entirely完全的;actually实际上;continuously连续地。

  5.B negative消极的;optimistic乐观的;pleasant令人愉快的;disappointed令人失望的。前文说有积极的力量在对抗数字鸿沟的不利因素,因此,实际上我们有理由保持乐观的态度。

  6.D develop发展;centralize集中;realize认识到;commercialize使商业化,由下文“网络有利于商业途径的普及”,可知此处表述的意思是网络越来越商业化。in the interest of...为了...的利益

  7.C user使用者;producer生产者;customer消费者;citizen公民。句意:越多的人上网就有越多的潜在消费者。

  8.B enterprise企业,事业;government政府;official官员;句意:越来越多的政府害怕他们的国家...

  9.D leave behind 留下,超过与leave相关的短语:leave aside把某事搁置一边leave out 省去,遗漏,不考虑leave off 停止,不再穿

  10.A 网络把人们联系在一起,选netted

  11.B decrease减少,narrow变窄;neglect忽视,疏忽;low降低 句意:因此,我现在认为数字鸿沟是在变窄而不是在拓宽

  12.D contain包含,容纳;prevent防止,阻止;keep保留,保持;combat战斗,搏斗

  13.C win赢得;detail详述,细说;defeat击败,战胜;fear畏惧。

  14.A enormous巨大的;countless无数的;numerical数字的。potential作名词为不可数,不能用countless修饰,big一般表示尺寸、数字、范围上的大。

  15.D take advantage of 利用

  16.B with respect to 关于,至于 with也可换成in.表示关于的还有with regard to,concerning等。

  17.C offence冒犯;investment投资;invasion入侵;insult侮辱

  18.C construction建筑;facility设备;infrastructure基础设施;institution公共机构,制度。从后文中出现的infrastructure可以轻易得到答案。

  19.A 表语从句,表示原因,“这也就是为什么...”

  20.D concerning关于;concluding结束的;according根据;including包括、

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