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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二十)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午2:25
  Passage One

  Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

  Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery, but being able to tell if the cause is a cold or flu (流感) may make a difference in how long the misery lasts.

  The American Lung Association (ALA) has issued new guidelines on combating colds and the flu, and one of the keys is being able to quickly tell the two apart. That’s because the prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon after the illness sets in. As for colds, the sooner a person starts taking over-the-counter remedy, the sooner relief will come.

  The common cold and the flu are both caused by viruses. More than 200 viruses can cause cold symptoms, while the flu is caused by three viruses—flu A, B and C. There is no cure for either illness, but the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine (疫苗), which is, for most people, the best way to fight the flu, according to the ALA.

  But if the flu does strike, quick action can help. Although the flu and common cold have many similarities, there are some obvious signs to look for.

  Cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose and scratchy throat typically develop gradually, and adults and teens often do not get a fever. On the other hand, fever is one of the characteristic features of the flu for all ages. And in general, flu symptoms including fever and chills, sore throat and body aches come on suddenly and are more severe than cold symptoms.

  The ALA notes that it may be particularly difficult to tell when infants and preschool age children have the flu. It advises parents to call the doctor if their small children have flu-like symptoms.

  Both cold and flu symptoms can be eased with over-the-counter medications as well. However, children and teens with a cold or flu should not take aspirin for pain relief because of the risk of Reye syndrome (综合症),a rare but serious condition of the liver and central nervous system.

  There is, of course, no vaccine for the common cold. But frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact with people who have colds can reduce the likelihood of catching one.

  11. According to the author, knowing the cause of the misery will help ________.

  A) shorten the duration of the illness

  B) the patient buy medicine over the counter

  C) the patient obtain cheaper prescription drugs

  D) prevent people from catching colds and the flu(A)

  12. We learn from the passage that ________.

  A) one doesn’t need to take any medicine if he has a cold or the flu

  B) aspirin should not be included in over-the-counter medicines for the flu

  C) delayed treatment of the flu will harm the liver and central nervous system

  D) over-the-counter drugs can be taken to ease the misery caused by a cold or the flu(D)

  13. According to the passage, to combat the flu effectively, ________.

  A) one should identify the virus which causes it

  B) one should consult a doctor as soon as possible

  C) one should take medicine upon catching the disease

  D) one should remain alert when the disease is spreading(C)

  14. Which of the following symptoms will distinguish the flu from a cold?

  A) A stuffy nose.

  B) A high temperature.

  C) A sore throat.

  D) A dry cough.(B)

  15. If children have flu-like symptoms, their parents ________.

  A) are advised not to give them aspirin

  B) should watch out for signs of Reye syndrome

  C) are encouraged to take them to hospital for vaccination

  D) should prevent them from mixing with people running a fever(A)

  这篇文章讲的是应该如何区别对待感冒和流感。因为文章旨在向普通民众传播医疗知识,所以遣词造句较为简易,结构清晰易辨,理解的难度不大。

  文章开篇指出两点,一是感冒与流感有很多相似的症状(Scratchy throats, stuffy noses and body aches all spell misery),二是应当学会区分感冒和流感(may make a difference)。这两点也是文章所述内容的纲领,后者是论述的侧重点。

  第二段引用医疗权威ALA的指导原则,指出区分普通感[考.试*大]冒与流感的原因所在:辨别出是哪种疾病后可以立即进行相应的治疗。对于流感来说,要马上把医生的药房付诸实施(prescription drugs available for the flu need to be taken soon);对感冒来说,则要立即服用非处方药(starts taking over-the-counter remedy)。

  接下来的几段从致病成因、预防手段、症状等方面介绍了感冒与流感的区别。

  第三段讲述了二者的致病因素,感冒源于二百多种病毒,而流感源于三种病毒。作者附带讲到流感的预防方法:接种疫苗(the flu can be prevented by the flu vaccine)。而普通感冒的预防方法则跳到了最后一段:frequent hand washing and avoiding close contact,勤洗手,不与感冒病人密切接触。

  四、五、六段介绍了感冒与流感在症状上的区别。第四段只起了承上启下的作用,第五段详细讲解了二者的区别。第六段则指出一个特例:婴幼儿和学龄前儿童的流感症状不易辨认。

  第七段讲的是治疗方法,着重说明了治疗禁忌:少年儿童不宜服用阿司匹林(should not take aspirin for pain relief)。

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