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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二十一)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午2:41
  Passage Two

  Questions 16 to 20 are based on the following passage.

  In a time of low academic achievement by children in the United States, many Americans are turning to Japan, a country of high academic achievement and economic success, for possible answers. However, the answers provided by Japanese preschools are not the ones Americans expected to find. In most Japanese preschools, surprisingly little emphasis is put on academic instruction. In one investigation, 300 Japanese and 210 American preschool teachers, child development specialists, and parents were asked about various aspects of early childhood education. Only 2 percent of the Japanese respondents (答问卷者) listed “to give children a good start academically” as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. In contrast, over half the American respondents chose this as one of their top three choices. To prepare children for successful careers in first grade and beyond, Japanese schools do not teach reading, writing, and mathematics, but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group. The vast majority of young Japanese children are taught to read at home by their parents.

  In the recent comparison of Japanese and American preschool education, 91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience as one of their top three reasons for a society to have preschools. Sixty-two percent of the more individually oriented (强调个性发展的) Americans listed group experience as one of their top three choices. An emphasis on the importance of the group seen in Japanese early childhood education continues into elementary school education.

  Like in America, there is diversity in Japanese early childhood education. Some Japanese kindergartens have specific aims, such as early musical training or potential development. In large cities, some kindergartens are attached to universities that have elementary and secondary schools. Some Japanese parents believe that if their young children attend a university-based program, it will increase the children’s chances of eventually being admitted to top-rated schools and universities. Several more progressive programs have introduced free play as a way out for the heavy intellectualizing in some Japanese kindergartens.

  16. We learn from the first paragraph that many Americans believe ________.

  A) Japanese parents are more involved in preschool education than American parents

  B) Japan’s economic success is a result of its scientific achievements

  C) Japanese preschool education emphasizes academic instruction

  D) Japan’s higher education is superior to theirs(C)

  17. Most Americans surveyed believe that preschools should also attach importance to ________.

  A) problem solving

  B) group experience

  C) parental guidance

  D) individually-oriented development(B)

  18. In Japan’s preschool education, the focus is on ________.

  A) preparing children academically

  B) developing children’s artistic interests

  C) tapping children’s potential

  D) shaping children’s character(D)

  19. Free play has been introduced in some Japanese kindergartens in order to ________.

  A) broaden children’s horizon

  B) cultivate children’s creativity

  C) lighten children’s study load

  D) enrich children’s knowledge(C)

  20. Why do some Japanese parents send their children to university-based kindergartens?

  A) They can do better in their future studies.

  B) They can accumulate more group experience there.

  C) They can be individually oriented when they grow up.

  D) They can have better chances of getting a first-rate education.(D)

  这是一篇讲述日本学前教育的材料,因为文章是讲给美国人看的,所以附带介绍美国的学前教育以和日本进行对比。材料一共只有三大段,第一大段指出日本学前教育的侧重点,第二段进一步说明日本学前教育侧重点中对集体主义的重视,第三段则说明日本学前教育除集体主义外的丰富内容。

  第一段开头实际上提出了研究日本学前教育的原因:low academic achievement by children in the United States,大意是美国的儿童教育成效不明显,这迫使人们把目光投向了教育和经济水平都很高的日本,以期得到答案(for possible answers)。这一探询的结果是出乎美国人意料的,日本学前教育很少强调功课指导(little emphasis is put on academic instruction),这也是本文的主要观点。文章接下来以问卷调查为论据对这一观点进行了论证。

  问卷调查的结果是日本人更重视坚韧、专注和集体主义等素质的培养(but rather skills such as persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group),第二段继续对集体主义这一项素质做了进一步说明(可见其重要性):91%的日本人将其列为学前教育的三大目标之一(91 percent of Japanese respondents chose providing children with a group experience),这项教育甚至会延续到小学教育(continues into elementary school education)。

  最后一段讨论了除去上述素质教育外,日本学前教育的其他内容和特色。其中包括早期音乐训练和潜力发掘(early musical training or potential development),附属于大学(这一项属于特色),以及自由玩耍(have introduced free play)。

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