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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(九)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:48
  Passage one

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  Interest in pursuing international careers has soared in recent years, enhanced by chronic (长久的) personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent.

  Professionals seek career experience outside of their home countries for a variety of reasons. They may feel the need to recharge their batteries with a new challenge. They may want a position with more responsibility that encourages creativity and initiative. Or they may wish to expose their children to another culture, and the opportunity to learn a second language.

  When applying for a job, one usually has to submit a resume or curriculum vitae (CV). The two terms generally mean the same thing: a one-or two-page document describing one’s educational qualifications and professional experience. However, guidelines for preparing a resume are constantly changing. The best advice is to find out what is appropriate regarding the corporate (公司) culture, the country culture, and the culture of the person making the hiring decision. The challenge will be to embrace two or more cultures in one document. The following list is a good place to start.

  ● “Educational requirements differ from country to country. In almost every case of ‘cross-border’ job hunting, just stating the title of your degree will not bean adequate description. Provide the reader with details about your studies and any related experience.”

  ● Pay attention to the resume format you use-chronological or reverse-chronological order. Chronological order means listing your ‘oldest’ work experience first. Reverse-chronological order means listing your current or most recent experience first. Most countries have preferences about which format is most acceptable. If you find no specific guidelines, the general preference is for the reverse-chronological format.”

  ● If you are submitting your resume in English, find out if the recipient (收件人) uses British English or American English because there are variations between the two versions. For example, university education is often referred to as ‘tertiary education’ in the United Kingdom, but this term is almost never used in the United States. A reader who is unfamiliar with these variations may assume that your resume contains errors.

  21. Companies are hiring more foreign employees because ________.

  A) they find foreign employees are usually more talented

  B) they need original ideas from employees hired overseas

  C) they want to expand their business beyond home borders

  D) they have difficulty finding qualified personnel at home(D)

  22. The author believes that an individual who applies to work overseas ________.

  A) is usually creative and full of initiative

  B) aims to improve his foreign language skills

  C) is dissatisfied with his own life at home

  D) seeks either his own or his children’s development(D)

  23. When it comes to resume writing, it is best to ________.

  A) take cultural factors into consideration

  B) learn about the company’s hiring process

  C) follow appropriate guidelines for job hunting

  D) know the employer’s personal likes and dislikes(A)

  24. When writing about qualifications, applicants are advised to ________.

  A) stress their academic potential to impress the decision maker

  B) give the title of the university degree they have earned at home

  C) provide a detailed description of their study and work experiences

  D) highlight their keen interest in pursuing a ‘cross-border’ career(C)

  25. According to the author’s last piece of advice, the applicants should be aware of ________.

  A) the different educational systems in the US and the UK

  B) the differences between the varieties of English

  C) the recipient’s preference with regard to the format

  D) the distinctive features of American and British cultures(B)

  这是一篇以跨国求职为说明对象的说明文章。开头首先叙述一点事实:近年来跨国求职现象猛增(soared in recent years),由此引出文章说明的中心。这一段只有一个句子,后半部分实际上是个省略了which的非限制性定语从句,完整形式应是which is enhanced by ……那么enhance(加强)的对象就是interest。由此,后半句的意义可以理解为“这种寻找国际工作的兴趣又被……加强了”。

  随后的第二段简要介绍了求职者进行跨国求职的几点原因:尝试新挑战(recharge their batteries with a new challenge,以新的挑战来为他们的电池充电。这是一种比喻说法。),激发创造性(encourages creativity and initiative),使孩子接触其他文化、学外国语言(expose their children to another culture,learn a second language)。

  介绍完原因之后,作者开始详细讲解跨国求职的主要工序:写简历;并指出跨国求职简历的难点:embrace two or more cultures in one document,包容照顾两种以上的文化。

  最后的三段是作者针对如何解决这一难点提出的建议:

  对教育水平的说明要详细具体(details about your studies and any related experience)。

  依据不同国家的惯常,来确定简历的格式(按时间由远及近Chronological order,或由近及远Reverse-chronological)。

  若对方母语为英语,则要注意区别英式英语和美式英语(find out if the recipient uses British English or American English)。

  21. Companies are hiring more foreign employees because ________.

  A) they find foreign employees are usually more talented

  B) they need original ideas from employees hired overseas

  C) they want to expand their business beyond home borders

  D) they have difficulty finding qualified personnel at home(D)

  题目问公司雇佣越来越多的外国员工的原因是什么。

  文章第一段称跨国求职因“chronic personnel shortages that are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent”而更加火热。chronic personnel shortages是长期人事短缺的意思,后面的that替代shortages,句子可以转换为personnel shortages are causing companies to search beyond their home borders for talent,意思是人事短缺正在迫使公司跨越国界需要人才。可见公司雇佣越来越多的外国员工的原因是长期人事短缺。

  A,他们发现外国员工通常更具才华。

  B,他们需要海外员工的新颖思维。

  C,他们想把业务拓展到国外。

  D,他们在国内发掘合格人才较为困难。

  只有D符合文意。

  22. The author believes that an individual who applies to work overseas ________.

  A) is usually creative and full of initiative

  B) aims to improve his foreign language skills

  C) is dissatisfied with his own life at home

  D) seeks either his own or his children’s development(D)

  题目问作者认为一个人申请海外职位如何如何。

  文章第一段只有一句话,讲的是跨国求职猛增的事实,这里题目问的必然是海外求职的细节问题,第一段不会提供答案,应该去第二段寻找相应内容。第二段从求职者的角度介绍了海外求职的几点原因。此题可以结合选项使用排除法。

  A,海外求职者往往创造性强、充满进取心。这句话是不对的,句中提到creative和initiative是在第二段作者指出求职火热的第二个原因之时:They may want a position with more responsibility that encourages creativity and initiative。这句话的意思是他们需要一个职位,这个职位with more responsibility,即需要承担更多的责任,that 指代responsibility,encourages creativity and initiative——激发创造力和进取心。从这句话可知海外求职者认为为外国公司工作可以激发自己的创造性和进取心,而不是像A所说的海外求职者往往创造性强、充满进取心。

  B,海外求职的目的是提高自己的外语水平。第二段最后一句话讲到了提高外语水平:they may wish to expose their children to another culture, and the opportunity to learn a second language。opportunity to learn a second language即是学习第二语言的机会。但这里的“机会”应该与前文的“to”连接,完整句子是they may wish to expose their children to the opportunity to learn a second language,他们希望带给孩子学习外语的机会。可见学习外语的孩子而不是求职者。

  C,海外求职者对在国内的生活不满。文中找不到类似的描述,只有第二个理由(more responsibility that encourages creativity and initiative)似乎有点联系,但从这里只能推断国外有些职位比目前工作更需要创造性,略欠创造性的工作不一定就会引起对生活的不满。

  D,期望个人或孩子的发展。从作者给出的三个原因来看,第一个是为自己充电,第二个是寻找激励自己的机会,第三个是让孩子接触外国文化,学习外语。前两个原因属于个人发展,第三个原因属于孩子的发展,正好与D的表述一致。

  23. When it comes to resume writing, it is best to ________.

  A) take cultural factors into consideration

  B) learn about the company’s hiring process

  C) follow appropriate guidelines for job hunting

  D) know the employer’s personal likes and dislikes(A)

  题目问在进行简历写作时,最好是……

  文章第三段提出了一个海外求职者简历写作的难题:guidelines for preparing a resume are constantly changing,意思是准备简历的指导原则总是不同的。而后作者给出了解决办法:find out what is appropriate regarding the corporate culture, the country culture, and the culture of the person making the hiring decision,即简历要照顾到公司文化、国家文化以及有聘用决定权的人的文化。

  A,把文化因素考虑进去。这一说法与文意恰好吻合。

  B,了解公司聘用程序。文中没有介绍这一方面的内容。

  C,遵循合适的求职指导。文中提到了求职指导(guidelines for preparing a resume),但有关的描述恰恰是说求职指导的不可靠性(constantly changing),也就是说跨国求职不宜遵循惯常的求职指导,与C的说法相反。

  D,了解雇主的个人好恶。文中说到海外求职简历要顾及有聘用决定权的人的文化(the culture of the person making the hiring decision)。文化所涵盖的范畴是比较广泛的,不能仅用好恶来概述,D的说法以偏概全。

  24. When writing about qualifications, applicants are advised to ________.

  A) stress their academic potential to impress the decision maker

  B) give the title of the university degree they have earned at home

  C) provide a detailed description of their study and work experiences

  D) highlight their keen interest in pursuing a ‘cross-border’ career(C)

  题目问有关任职资格的撰写问题,求职者得到了什么建议。

  A,突出他们的教育潜力,以打动招聘负责人。

  B,告知其在国内所获的大学学历文凭。

  C,提供学习、工作经历的详细描述。

  D,表现出对跨国工作的强烈兴趣。

  在最后三段作者提供的简历写作建议中,第一个段落写的是学历问题,第二个段落写的是履历的时间顺序问题,第三个段落写的是英式英语与美式英语的区别问题。题目问的是任职资格,那么其答案应该在第一个段落中。第一个段落一共三句话,第一句说明各国对教育水平的要求不同,由于这个原因,作者接下来指出just stating the title of your degree will not bean adequate description,即仅仅写出获得了什么文凭是不够的。这样B的说法就不对了。第三句话给出了作者的建议:Provide the reader with details about your studies and any related experience,即详细列出你的学习和任何相关经历。这与C的说法吻合。而A和D的说法在文中都找不到。

  25. According to the author’s last piece of advice, the applicants should be aware of ________.

  A) the different educational systems in the US and the UK

  B) the differences between the varieties of English

  C) the recipient’s preference with regard to the format

  D) the distinctive features of American and British cultures(B)

  题目问根据作者的最后一条建议,求职者应该意识到……

  A, 美国和英国的不同教育系统。

  B, 不同英语之间的区别。

  C, 简历接收者对格式的喜好。

  D, 美国与英国文化各自的特点。

  最后一条建议是这样的:If you are submitting your resume in English, find out if the recipient (收件人) uses British English or American English because there are variations between the two versions. For example, university education is often referred to as ‘tertiary education’ in the United Kingdom, but this term is almost never used in the United States. A reader who is unfamiliar with these variations may assume that your resume contains errors.

  直译为:如果你要提交的简历是英文的,应该弄清收件人说的是英式英语还是美式英语,因为这二者之间存在不同的地方。比如大学教育在英国被成为tertiary education,而在美国从来没有用过这个词组。读简历者如果不熟悉此类区别,将会认为你的简历存在错误。

  这段话比较简易,不难理解,讲的是两种英语的区别可能会让读简历者产生误解。A的说法是生造出来的,在文中没有论及教育系统的区别。B的说法与文章的意思一致。C说的格式问题是第二条建议的内容,不能张冠李戴给第三条建议。D所说的文化特点过于宽泛,虽然语言也属于文化,但不能以语言来概括文化。另外,值得一提的是,英式英语不见得就代表了英国英语,在澳大利亚、加拿大以及其他很多国家,人们讲的同样是英式英语。把英式英语等同于英国英语是不对的。

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