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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(十)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:51
  Passage Two

  Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world. Women’s education may be unusual territory for economists, but enhancing women’s contribution to development is actually as much an economic as a social issue. And economics, with its emphasis on incentives (激励), provides guideposts that point to an explanation for why so many girls are deprived of an education.

  Parents in low-income countries fail to invest in their daughters because they do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family: girls grow up only to marry into somebody else’s family and bear children. Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and art kept at home to do housework while their brothers are sent to school-the prophecy (预言) becomes self-fulfilling, trapping women in a vicious circle (恶性循环) of neglect.

  An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outside the home and faces an entirely different set of choices. She is likely to have fewer but healthier children and can insist on the development of all her children, ensuring that her daughters are given a fair chance. The education of her daughters then makes it much more likely that the next generation of girls, as well as of boys, will be educated and healthy. The vicious circle is thus transformed into a virtuous circle.

  Few will dispute that educating women has great social benefits. But it has enormous economic advantages as well. Most obviously, there is the direct effect of education on the wages of female workers. Wages rise by 10 to 20 per cent for each additional year of schooling. Such big returns are impressive by the standard of other available investments, but they are just the beginning. Educating women also has a significant impact on health practices, including family planning.

  26. The author argues that educating girls in developing countries is ________.

  A) troublesome

  B) labor-saving

  C) rewarding

  D) expensive(C)

  27. By saying “... the prophecy becomes self-fulfilling...” (Lines 45, Para. 2). the author means that ________.

  A) girls will turn out to be less valuable than boys

  B) girls will be capable of realizing their own dreams

  C) girls will eventually find their goals in life beyond reach

  D) girls will be increasingly discontented with their life at home(A)

  28. The author believes that a vicious circle can turn into a virtuous circle when ________.

  A) women care more about education

  B) girls can gain equal access to education

  C) a family has fewer but healthier children

  D) parents can afford their daughters’ education(B)

  29. What does the author say about women’s education?

  A) It deserves greater attention than other social issues.

  B) It is now given top priority in many developing countries.

  C) It will yield greater returns than other known investments.

  D) It has aroused the interest of a growing number of economists.(C)

  30. The passage mainly discusses ________.

  A) unequal treatment of boys and girls in developing countries

  B) the potential earning power of well-educated women

  C) the major contributions of educated women to society

  D) the economic and social benefits of educating women(D)

  这篇文章从经济学的角度论证了在发展中国家女性教育的价值。全文第一句话就概括了全文论述的核心:Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world,在发展中国家,女性教育可能会获得比任何其他投资更高的回报。一般说来,女性教育属于社会学研究的问题,但文章开头却从投资的角度看待这个问题,观点新颖,立即引起读者的阅读欲望。作者随后指出女性教育不受重视的问题首先可以从经济学角度(incentives,动机)进行理解。

  第二段承接第一段的内容,具体解释女性教育不受重视的经济学原因:do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family,父母们认为女孩不会对家庭经济做出贡献。女孩的价值因而被认为比男孩低而被剥夺了受教育的权利,使女性教育陷入恶性循环。

  作者接下来从相反的角度论述了受教育女性会带来的价值:对外,greater earning abilities outside the home,赚钱的能力更强(这是从经济学角度);对内,daughters are given a fair chance,在教育问题上对男女孩一视同仁(社会效应)。这样下一代女孩因为受到了足够的教育,在处理自己的儿女教育问题时,同样会重视女孩的教育(the next generation of girls will be educated and healthy),因而形成良性循环。

  最后一段承接上文对重视女性教育所带来的社会效应的论述,提出女性教育的巨大经济效应:wages of female workers(女性工人的工资增长)——rise by 10 to 20 per cent for each additional year of schooling,多上一年学,工资增长10-20%。作者把这一效应和其他投资的收益相对比(impressive by the standard of other available investments),与开篇引题的一句遥相呼应。文末指出女性教育的影响远不止此

  26. The author argues that educating girls in developing countries is ________.

  A) troublesome

  B) labor-saving

  C) rewarding

  D) expensive(C)

  题目问作者认为对女孩的教育在发展中国家是……

  A,麻烦的。

  B,C,Educating girls quite possibly yields a higher rate of return than any other investment available in the developing world,在发展中国家,女性教育可能会获得比任何其他投资更高的回报。在这里,作者谈论女性教育的出发点是经济回报,而不是惯常的社会问题等。在四个答案中C是“有回报的意思”,应该选择C。至于第一段以外的段落,因为作者是从经济学角度来论述女性教育问题,所以并未提及麻烦、省力与否这些社会学角度的问题,答案A和C是没有着落的。至于D,第二段有一句话they do not expect them to make an economic contribution to the family: girls grow up only to marry into somebody else’s family and bear children,意思是女孩不能带来经济回报,没有回报又要花钱养活,似乎有“昂贵”的意思。但要注意这里的观点是发展中国家里父母们的观点,而题目是问作者对此的看法。因此也不能选择D。

  27. By saying “... the prophecy becomes self-fulfilling...” (Lines 45, Para. 2). the author means that ________.

  A) girls will turn out to be less valuable than boys

  B) girls will be capable of realizing their own dreams

  C) girls will eventually find their goals in life beyond reach

  D) girls will be increasingly discontented with their life at home(A)

  题目问作者说the prophecy becomes self-fulfilling这句话目的是要指出什么。

  这句话本意是预言完成了自我实现。“预言”是指什么,“实现”为什么是自我实现,这些需要到前文去找。

  这句话出现在第二段末尾,整个第二段讲的是发展中国家的父母忽视女孩教育的原因。全文一共两个长句,大意是:父母没有在女儿身上投资是因为他们认为女儿不会为家庭做出经济贡献,她们长大后只会嫁入别考试&大家生儿育女;女孩因而被视为价值低于男孩而被安排在家中做家务,而男孩则被送入学校学习。预言完成了自我实现。

  首先看预言指的是什么。在这一段前半部分找不到预言这个字眼,也没有类似于汉语的普遍观念中“预言”的内容,似乎prophecy的出现非常突兀。但细看的话,前面提到了expect一词,它有期望、设想的意思,与预言略微接近,除此外就无其他任何意义近似的词了。这样只能断定expect就是指的prophecy,作者在这里使用了比较夸张的写法,用带有神谕色彩的prophecy来指代发展中国家思想较为落后的父母们的设想,是一种讽刺手法。

  找到“预言”的着落点后,再看它为何完成了自我实现。预言本身的内容是女孩们不会带来经济贡献,那么无论自我实现还是外力促使实现,结果都只能是女孩们没有带来经济贡献。这个结果何以发生?是因为Girls are thus seen as less valuable than boys and art kept at home to do housework,女孩们被看做价值更低而只被允许在家中做家务。这样的话,从预言做出到结果出现就呈现这样一个逻辑:父母们预言女儿不会做出贡献,便不送她们上学,因为不送她们上学,她们在事实上就无法做出经济贡献,最终验证了父母们的预言。是父母们的预言本身促成了本身的实现。这应该就是作者所说自我实现的意义。

  A,事实证明女孩的价值比男孩低。

  B,女孩能够实现她们的梦想。

  C,女孩将最终发现她们的生活目标是可望不可即的。

  D,女孩对家庭生活越来越不满意。

  四个答案中A符合文意。

  28. The author believes that a vicious circle can turn into a virtuous circle when ________.

  A) women care more about education

  B) girls can gain equal access to education

  C) a family has fewer but healthier children

  D) parents can afford their daughters’ education(B)

  题目问作者认为在什么时候恶性循环会转变成良性循环。

  A,女性更注重教育。

  B,女孩能够获得同等的受教育机会。

  C,一个家庭中孩子数量更少同时又更健康。

  D,父母能够供得起女儿们上学。

  可以看到,文中的第二段详细讲述了恶性循环的内容,第三段详细讲述了良性循环的内容(vicious circle和virtuous circle这二个词组分别出现在这两段的末尾)。恶性循环的内容是:父母不重视女孩教育,考试&大不让女孩上学,得不到教育的女孩无法为家庭经济做出贡献,更使父母们忽视女孩教育。良性循环的内容是:一个女性如果受过教育,她就有了较强的赚钱能力(greater earning abilities),同时在家庭方面更倾向于少生孩子,但更加注重孩子的健康,她会在教育方面给予孩子们平等的发展机会;女孩们获得了同样的受教育的机会,在将来抚养孩子时也会注重女孩的教育,从而形成良性循环。

  良性循环与恶性循环的最重要区别在于女孩能不能获得同等的教育机会。良性循环循环的起点必须是女孩获得受教育机会,而终点当然也是下一代女孩受到同样的受教育机会。而题目问的是什么时候恶性循环转变成良性循环,那么这个转变当然应该发生在良性循环的起点。

  A所说的女性更注重教育是循环中的第二环,它不可能不以起[考试大]点为前提而独立出现。C所述的确实是受过教育的女性才有的做法,但在这个良性循环中它没有起到关键作用,它不会促使循环进入下一环。起关键作用的是赋予女孩教育机会。D的说法有一定迷惑性。如果父母供得起女儿上学,那么女儿就得到了受教育机会,这样就进入了良性循环的起点。然而前文说了,父母们不给女儿受教育机会是因为他们认为女儿不会创造价值,而不是因为供不起她们上学,因此这个前提本身就是错误的。

  29. What does the author say about women’s education?

  A) It deserves greater attention than other social issues.

  B) It is now given top priority in many developing countries.

  C) It will yield greater returns than other known investments.

  D) It has aroused the interest of a growing number of economists.(C)

  本题问关于女性教育,作者说了什么。文章全篇均是对女性教育的论述,不能肯定问题的答案出自哪一个特别的自然段。因此需要使用排除法来把错误选项逐个排除。

  A,它应比其他社会问题得到更多的关注。通读全篇可知,作者是从经济学角度来讨论女性教育问题,附带提到了它的社会效应(第三段),但始终把它和其他社会问题进行对比。因此A的说法不对。

  B,在许多发展中国家它正受到优先照顾。文中所表达的意思与B的说法恰好相反,在许多发展中国家,女性教育根本得不到重视。

  C,它能比其他已知的投资产出更多的回报。这是文章论述的中心思想。

  D,它已经引起越来越多的经济学家的兴趣。文中提到经济学家的地方只有第一段的一处:Women’s education may be unusual territory for economists,意思是女性教育问题对于经济学家来说或许是个陌生的领域。除此之外再无相关的论述,由此可见D的说法没有着落点。

  30. The passage mainly discusses ________.

  A) unequal treatment of boys and girls in developing countries

  B) the potential earning power of well-educated women

  C) the major contributions of educated women to society

  D) the economic and social benefits of educating women(D)

  题目问文章主要讨论的是什么。根据前文的分析,文章的主要讨论的问题应该是女性教育所带来的经济利益。

  A, 发展中国家男孩和女孩受到不平等的对待。本文讨论的重心在于女孩,不能把男孩和女孩等量齐观。另外文章讨论的是女孩在教育上的不公平问题,这里没有把问题具体化。

  B, 受过良好教育的女性的赚钱潜力。文章第三段提到An educated mother, on the other hand, has greater earning abilities outside the home,意思是受过教育的女性在社会上赚钱的能力较强。不过以此作为全文的论述核心则有不妥,因为这个说法所涵盖的范围过于狭窄,局限于赚钱能力本身,应当上升到女性教育问题的高度。

  C, 受教育女性对社会的主要贡献。这一说法较为宽泛,文中所述的受教育女性对社会的贡献主要在于家庭内部,如少生孩子,重视孩子健康,重视下一代女性的教育问题,形成女性教育的良性循环等。C的说法是受教育女性对社会的“主要”贡献,按照常理,其主要贡献肯定绝不止于文中所述。

  D, 女性教育所带来的经济和社会利益。女性教育所带来的[考试大]经济利益,这一说法没有问题,它是全文论述的核心。而在文章第三段也附带说了重视女性教育所带来的社会效应,所以这一说法全面地概括了文章讨论的主要问题。

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