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新英语六级阅读基本功-长难句过关5

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午12:46
  第五章 分词和从句

  分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)和分词短语在英语中使用非常普遍,在句子中可以充当补语,定语,状语等成分。在成分复杂的句子中,有时分词的出现易同谓语动词的被动式或者进行时搞混,造成句子主干的判断错误。带有自己主语的分词独立结构由于同非限制性定语从句和插入语一样需要逗号同句子的其他成分分开,因此常会误认为是非限制性定语或插入语。有些从句,尤其是定语从句,其形式变化很多,在句子中也易同其他句子成分混淆。

  Exercise

  Facing the Atlantic, it is on the northeastern coast of the United States, and most of the city is built on islands.

  He sat in front of them, dressed in a plain , ill-fitting suit, never moving,his dusty face masking his age.

  After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.

  要点: Facing the Atlantic为现在分词短语,在句中做方式状语.

  译文:它濒临大西洋,位于美国东北海岸线上,城市的大部分建在海岛上.

  要点:" dressed in ..., never moving, his dusty face...".为句子的三个伴随状语。第一个状语为过去分词,第二个为现在分词,第三个为独立主格结构。

  译文:他坐在他们前面一动不动,穿着一套不合身的便服,风尘满面,让人看不出他的年纪。

  要点:"another decade lived or endured"是独立结构,作行为方式状语,lived和endured是过去分词。

  译文:不管怎么说,八十大寿毕竟非同一般---你又活了十年或者又熬过了十年,是活是熬,全在于你怎么看了。

  Exercise

  Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful, I applied, fearing as I did so, that without a degree and with no experience in teaching my chances of getting the job were slim.

  Rich bodies were carefully wrapped in yards of cloth, leaving diamond-shaped spaces which were decorated with precious stones and pieces of gold.

  He merely swallows this theory because there is something about that appeals to the twentieth-century mentality.

  要点:主句为" I applied"."Being...and wanting..."为分句短语作原因状语,"fearing"为分词作伴随状语.that引导的从句为"fearing"的宾语从句. 译文:我因为手头很拮据,同时也想干点有用的事,于是便提出了申请,但是提出申请时我也担心:自己一无学位二无教学经验,得到这份工作的可能性是微乎其微的.

  要点:分词短语"leaving diamond-shaped spaces..."在句子中作补充说明状语.定语从句"which were decorated with precious stones and pieces of gold" 修饰"space".

  译文:富有人的尸体用成匹的布料细心地包裹起来,留出一块钻石形状的空间用宝石及碎金将其装饰好.

  要点:本句中because引导的是原因状语从句.省略了主语that/which的定语从句"appeals to..."修饰something. "there be +n..."结构是一种表达法.

  译文:他丝毫不加怀疑地接受这一理论,只是因为这一理论中有一种迎合20世纪的精神力量。

  Excrise In fact, "learning to use a computer" is like "learning to play a game", but learning the rules of one game may not help you play a second game, whose rules may not be the same.

  Those who oppose the building of flats base their case primarily on the assumption that everyone prefers an individual home and garden and on the high cost per unit of accommodation.

  My point is that the frequent complaint of one generation about the one immediately following it is inevitable.

  要点: "learning to use a computer"和" learning to play a game"均为动名词短语,分别做主语和表语。but连接两个并列句,其中后一句里"whose rules may not be the same"为非限制性定语从句,修饰"a second game."

  译文:事实上,学习使用计算机就像学玩游戏一样,但是学了一个游戏规则可能无助于你玩第二个游戏,因为游戏的规则可能有所不同。

  要点: "those"后有定语从句修饰。该定语从句为:who oppose the building of flats."the assumption"后有一同位语从句修饰,即"that everyone prefers an individual home and garden". "base on"有"the assumption"和" the high cost"两个并列短语。

  译文:那些反对建公寓的人所根据的主要理由是,他们认为每个人都想拥有单独的住宅和花园,另外,公寓楼每个居住单元的成本太高。

  要点:that引导的是一个表语从句,这个表语从句的主干结构为"the complaint is inevitable"."complaint"由后面的介词短语"of one generation about the one(generation) immediately following it"修饰。

  译文:我要强调的是一代人对其下一代的抱怨是不可避免的.

  Excrise Someone with a history of doing more rather than less will go into old age more congnitively sound than someone who has not had an active mind.

  When building space on the ground becomes scarce use must be made of the space in the air.

  when a consumer finds that an item she or he bought is faulty or in some way does not live up to the manufacturer’s claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase.

  要点:句首的someone后有介词短语with a history of doing more rather than less 对其进行修饰。第二个someone后有一个定语从句who has not had an active mind对其进行修饰。“sound”在此句中的意思为“健康,健全”。

  译文:经常积极思考的人进入老年后,比不积极思考的人在认知方面更加健康.

  要点:主句的谓语use must be made of the space in the air.是被动语态。在英语中“动词+名词+介词”类的短语将主动语态改为被动语态有两种改法。一种是将词组中的名词上升为主语;另一种是将介词后面的宾语升为主语。

  举例:主语态:They take care of the babies.

  被动态1Care of the babies are taken by them.

  被动态2The babies are taken care by them.

  在本句中是采用了第一种做法,全句的主动语态为We must take use of the space in the air.

  译文:当地面的建筑空间变得紧张时,我们必须在空中拓展空间。

  要点:when引导时间状语从句,直到逗号为止。"an item"后有定语从句"she or he bought "对其修饰," in some way "意为在某一方面,"live up to"意为达到。。。标准。

  译文:消费者一旦发现所购商品有缺陷或者在某一方面不能达到生产厂家宣称的标准,应采取的第一步是向购物商店出示保单或其他有效的证据。

  Excrise

  Papousek concluded that it was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control.

  Most Asian-American students owe their success to the influence of parents who are determined that their children take full advantage of what the American educational system has to offer.

  But a committee faced with a major decision can’t always move as quickly as the events it’s trying to respond to.壹壹英语()

  要点:谓语动词"concluded"在句中带有两个that引导的宾语从句,即:"that it was not primarily the sight..."和"that there exists a ..."。第一个宾语从句实际上是一个强调句。"success"后面有一个定语从句"they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill"对其进行修饰。 译文:帕普塞克得出结论,使他们开心的不是灯光,而是由于他们在解决问题,掌握技能时所取得的成功。而且人类还有一种基本欲望:认识并支配世界。

  要点:"owe...to"意为"。。。归功于。。。","owe their success to the influence of parents"意为"他们的成功归功于父母的影响。"parents"后有"who"引导的定语从句,其中"are determined"后又有一个that引导的宾语从句,谓语要求用动词原形"take"。"take advantage of"后又有一个what 引导的宾语从句。

  译文:大多数亚裔美国学生把成功归功于父母的影响,因为他们的父母决心要自己的孩子充分利用美国教育体制所能提供的一切有利条件。

  要点:句子虽然很短却是主从复合句。句子的主句是a committee can’t move as quickly as the events。句中faced with...是过去分词短语作定语,修饰committee。在as quickly as中,第二个as是连词,后面省略了谓语。it’s trying to respond是省略关系代词的定语从句,修饰events;it指代committee。faced with a major decision在意义上表示时间,翻译时可把它译成时间状语。

  译文:委员会在面临重大决策时,未必总是能对迅速变化的事件作出及时的反应。
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