Subscribe to Posts
Subscribe to Comments
字号: | |

2009年6月大学英语四级翻译备考(9)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午11:28
语态的选择

  学英语的人都知道,传统英语语法将语态分为两个部分:主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。它们被用来说明句子中谓语和主语之间的关系。使用主动语态时表示主语是动作的执行者,使用被动语态则表示主语是动作的承受者。要想在翻译中把握好语态的选择,必须从三个方面来着手。

  1) 什么是“语态变换”?

  2) 英语语态与英语词性的关系?

  3) 与汉语相比,英语语态的特点是什么?

  1.“语态变换”是指翻译中英语和汉语两种语言之间主动与被动的转换。译文里的语态并不一定完全遵循原文里的语态,要根据情况作恰当选择。

  2.英语语态与英语词性有密切的联系。我们甚至可以直接通过一个词来判断它具有主动含义还是被动含义。如有些名词的后缀常具有主动语态意义。最常见的有-ar,-or,-er,这样的单词有beggar(乞丐),liar(惯于说谎者),instructor(指导者),professor(教授),worker(工人),writer(作者)。另一些名词后缀如-ee却具有被动意义,这样的单词有examinee(受审查者,被测试者),interviewee(被访问者),employee(被雇佣者)。除名词外,英语定冠词“the”与过去分词构成的名词常指承受者,如:the oppressed(受压迫者),the accused(被告),the wounded(受伤者)。由-ing分词转化来的形容常带有主动意义,而由及物-ed分词转化来的形容词则常带有被动意义。如interesting film(令人感兴趣的电影),disappointing look(失望的表情)。有些由介词、名词和介词构成的介词短语常表达主动意义,如:in place of(替代),in need of(需要),in want of(需要),in possession of(拥有),in charge of(负责),in control of(控制)。但由介词、定冠词the、名词和介词构成的介词短语常表达被动意义,如:at the mercy of(受……摆布),in the care of(由……照料),in the charge of(由……负责),in the possession of(由……拥有),in the pay of(由……雇用的)。

  3.与汉语相比,英语中被动语态使用范围非常广。被动语态多用于以下场合。

  1)不清楚动作的执行者是谁。

  例1 The front window in the classroom was broken yesterday.(单纯地描述一个事实,即:窗户碎了。但是,“窗户被谁打碎了?”说话人并不知道)
  2)说话人对宾语的兴趣大于对主语的兴趣。

  例2 The books are written especially for children.(说话人关心的只是;这本书是特别为孩子们准备的。目的达到就行,书的作者是谁不用管他)
  3)不愿意说出动作的执行者,目的是为了使语言更加圆滑、得体。

  例3 It’s generally considered impolite to ask one’s age,salary,marriage,etc.(这句话的潜语境是,有人不识时宜地询问别人的年龄、收入和婚姻状况等,而这是非常不礼貌的。本句的说话者为了避免交际陷入尴尬刻意略去了主语,而选择了“It”作形式主语)

  4)出于修饰的原因,或使句子安排更加合理。

  例4 The professor came to our school and warmly welcomed by the teachers and students.(句子的后半句用被动式就可以只安排一个主语“the professor”。)

  汉语虽然也有“被”、“由”之类的词表示动作是被动的,但这种表达远没有英语的被动语态那么常见。因此,很多英语被动句在翻译时就被译成了汉语的主动句。反之,很多汉语的主动句在译成英文时会变成英语被动态。
1. _______________ (随着工商业的发展),the number of trees in many big cities has dramatically reduced.

  2. Travel can widen our knowledge, _____________ (扩大我们的眼界),and make one open-minded as well.

  3. Cars are responsible for most of the smog in cities, _______________ (这已经对环境造成了严重的污染).

  4.Modernization will be entirely possible in the first half of the 21st century, as long as we ________________(坚持认为)that economic development is the center of all our work.

  5. He was convinced on the basis of ____________(当时已出现的情况)that there would be a long and difficult struggle.
1. With industries and business developing quickly

  解析:本句意为:随着工商业的发展,许多大城市的树木数量正急剧减少。“随着……”要用介词with或along with。“工商业”既包括工业也包括商业,翻译时要注意译文的完整性。本句也可译成:With the quick development of industries and business.

  2. broaden our horizon

  解析:句中的短语widen our knowledge意思是“扩大我们的眼界”,make one open-minded是同义复指,它们表示相同的意思却在英语里使用不同的表达,以避免用词重复。这是英语行文的一个技巧,考生在翻译时应尽量避免wordiness(用词累赘),这个技巧在写六级作文时也值得借鉴。本句还可以译成:expand our vision或extend our sight.

   3. which has seriously polluted the environment

  解析:“这已经对环境造成了严重的污染”中的“这”显然是指前半句提到的the smog in cities,这里需要的是一个非限制性定语从句,补充说明城市烟雾对环境的影响。本句还可以译成:which has brought serious pollution to the environment。

   4. hold an idea/ insist on the idea/ stick to the idea

  解析:本句意为:只要我们坚持以经济建设为中心,那么在21世纪上半叶实现现代化是完全可能的。本题考查固定短语“坚持认为”的说法。除了答案提供的说法外还有以下说法大家可以参考:persist in the idea/ persevere in the idea/ adhere to the idea等。

  5. what had appeared by then

  解析:“情况”在这里没必要直译成situation或case,本句含义是指基于当时的情况使他确信,因而可以用what引导作basis后置定语。还有一点需要注意的是,“当时已出现”要求我们在翻译时准确选择时态。by then与过去完成时态想一致,也可以用at that time


反应: 

2 Response to '2009年6月大学英语四级翻译备考(9)'

  1. 匿名 Said,

    Hi there just wanteԁ to gіνe уou a quіck heads up.

    Тhe worԁs in your content seem to be running off thе scгeen
    in Inteгnet еxplorer. I'm not sure if this is a format issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I'd
    post to let you know. Τhe desіgn looκ gгeat
    thоugh! Hopе уou get the problеm fіхеd soon.
    Ϲheerѕ

    my ѕite; garden centers

     

  2. 匿名 Said,

    Hey there! I know this is sort of off-topic however
    I had to ask. Does running a well-established website such
    as yours take a large amount of work? I'm completely new to writing a blog however I do write in my diary daily. I'd like to start
    a blog so I will be able to share my own experience and views online.
    Please let me know if you have any recommendations or
    tips for new aspiring blog owners. Thankyou!

    Feel free to visit my webpage :: wallpapers hd iphone

     

发表评论