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2009年6月英语四级阅读备考(8)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午8:06
  The sun is not growing weaker, yet its light appears to be dimming. Between 1960 and 1990, some scientists believe, the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth's surface may have declined as much as 10% -- and in some places, Hong Kong, for example, more than 35%.

  What was going on? Well, it appears that increased air pollution during those 30 years -- over Asia, in particular - with the help, perhaps, of some increased cloudiness, may have exerted a cooling influence on the surface of the planet even as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were encouraging the atmosphere to warm. The impacts of that tug-of-war on the climate system could be devilishly difficult to untangle. At the same time, no task could be more urgent. For if global pollution has helped keep global warming in check, says Veerabhadran Ramanathan, an atmospheric scientist at the University of California at San Diego, then the full impact of the buildup of greenhouse gases has yet to be felt. This week, at the American Geophysical Union meeting in Montreal, Ramanathan and others will be presenting the latest data on the solar-dimming problem and pondering its implications for the climate system as a whole.

  Many scenarios for global warming, for example, invoke a speedup in the hydrological cycle by which water evaporates and then comes down as rain. The cooling produced by solar dimming, however, may slow the rate of evaporation, while higher up in the atmosphere the pollutants responsible for absorbing and reflecting sunlight are likely to interfere with the process that produces rain.

  Why? These pollutants, which take the form of tiny, airborne particles called aerosols, act as nuclei around which cloud droplets form. The problem is, there are too many aerosols in the atmosphere competing for water molecules, so the cloud droplets that form are too small and never become weighty enough to fall to the ground. As a result, says Beate Liepert, an atmospheric physicist at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, the atmosphere could be filled with moisture while Earth's surface thirsts for rain.

  Many questions remain, including the true extent of the dimming. One analysis pegs the average worldwide darkening to be about 4% over three decades, while another computes it to be more than twice that much. There are also questions about the reliability of the devices that measure the sunlight reaching Earth's surface. Known as radiometers, these instruments are nothing more than flat, black solar collectors capped with glass. They are sometimes finicky; a smudge of dirt or a speck of dust can cause bogus readings and change the calculated results.

  Solar dimming, in other words, is a problem still in the process of being defined, and as its dimensions become clearer, so will the nature of the challenge the world faces. Although scientists have done a lot of thinking about global warming, they are just beginning to grapple with the problem of how global warming and solar dimming interact. As Ramanathan puts it, "It's like we have a new gorilla sitting down at the table" - and it could turn out to be a very big gorilla indeed.

  1. By "tug-of-war"(Line 4, Paragraph 2), the author means .

  [A] the different effect of solar dimming and global warming

  [B] the impact of the solar dimming on the climate system

  [C] the influence of the solar dimming on the global warming

  [D] the interaction between the solar dimming and global warming

  2. How do the scientists feel about the current climate situation?

  [A] Serious

  [B] Optimistic

  [C] Carefree

  [D] Panicked

  3. When mentioning "It's like we have a new gorilla sitting down at the table"(Last Line, Paragraph 6), the author implies that .

  [A] scientists should have a close look at the solar dimming problem

  [B] we are facing a new problem which is very complicated and difficult to manage

  [C] we are just beginning to have research on this new field

  [D] the new solar dimming problem is beyond scientists' ability to tackle

  4. Which of the following cannot serve as a factor of causing the cooling surface of the planet?

  [A] The lack of the rain in the earth.

  [B] The increasing of the pollutants.

  [C] The forming of the cloud droplets.

  [D] The less weight of the cloud droplets.

  5. Which of the following is true according to the text?

  [A] The instruments used in the study are too simple to function well.

  [B] Living things in the earth will be greatly influenced by solar dimming.

  [C] There is still a long way to go in the study of solar dimming.

  [D] The findings that solar dimming has influence on the surface of the planet are doubtful.

  第一段:太阳的能量越来越弱,并且对地球啊的辐射也变得越来越少。

  第二段:造成这一现象的原因-污染!

  第三、四、五段:阳光的减弱会对地球造成的影响,如:影响大气循环,水的蒸发。

  第六段:总述问题,做结尾段。

  答案:D A B A C

  题目分析

  1. 答案为D,属猜词题。从句子"it appears that increased air pollution during those 30 years - over Asia, in particular - with the help, perhaps, of some increased cloudiness, may have exerted a cooling influence on the surface of the planet even as carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases were encouraging the atmosphere to warm."我们可看出一方面空气污染物及其形成的云星对地球表面有一种冷却作用,另一方面二氧化碳和其它温室气体却促使大气变暖。这是一种相互作用,一方强,另一方就弱,就像是"拔河赛"。文章最后一段的一句话"They are just beginning to grapple with the problem of how global warming and solar dimming interact."可以进一步印证我们的这一判断。

  2. 答案为A,属情感态度。原文对应信息是"no task could be more urgent"。注意含有比较级的否定式的理解,这句话的意思是"This task is the most urgent."从这句话我们可看出气候学家们对待此事的态度。

  3. 答案为B,属推理判断题。文章最后一段的中心思想是:对太阳变暗这一问题的研究还只是刚刚开始,还有很多东西我们不了解。然欧以拉曼纳森(Ramanathan)的话结束全文。就此我们可以判断拉曼纳森的话也应该是符合这段文章的中心大意的。

  4.答案为A,属事实细节题。原文对应信息是"it appears that increased air pollution during those 30 year - over Asia, in particular - with the help, perhaps, of some increased cloudiness, may have exerted a cooling influence on the surface of the planet"。这句话的意思是"全球--特别是亚洲--不断加剧的大气污染,借助数量有所增加的云度可能对整个地球表面起了一种冷却作用",而在形成云层的过程中由于"the cloud droplets that form are too small and never become weighty enough to fall to the ground"(所形成的云状水滴显得又太小,永远达不到足以落到地面的重量),所以这些云层无法变成雨滴落在地面,而是停留在大气层,从而对大气层起到一种冷却作用。选项A是这种现象所造成的结果。

  5.答案为C,属推理判断题。文章最后一段提出对太阳变暗这一问题的研究还只是刚刚开始,还有很多东西我们不了解。由此我们可做出判断。


相关阅读:2009年6月英语四级阅读备考汇总
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