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2009年6月英语四级语法备战-时态篇(过去完成时)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:21
  谓语动词构成:I/we/you/they had worked; he/she/it had worked

  (1) 表示过去某一时刻之前已经完成的动作,常与由by,before引导的时间状语连用

  We had learned 5000 words by the end of last month.

  到上个月底为止我已经学了五千个单词.

  I had finished the composition before supper. 晚饭前我就已经把作文写完了.

  (2) 表示过去某一动作之前已经完成的动作,常与由when,before等连词引导的时间状语从句连用

  When I woke up it had already stopped raining. 我醒来的时候雨就已经停了.

  I hadn't learned any English before I came here. 我来这儿之前没学过英语.

  (3) 用于宾语从句或间接引语中

  I wondered who had taken the umbrella without permission.

  我想知道谁不经允许就把雨伞拿去.

  He told me that he had passed the exam. 他告诉我他已通过考试.

  (4) 某些动词的过去完成时表示一个打算要做却没有做成的事.

  I had intended to come over to see you last night, but someone called and I couldn't get away. 昨晚我本打算来看你,但有人来找,脱不开身.

  We had hoped to catch the early bus, but found it was gone.

  我们本来希望乘早班车,却发现车已开了.

  (5) 用于表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件从句中

  If you had come yesterday, you would have met him.

  如果你昨天来的话,你就已经见到他的面了.

  She would have come if she hadn’t been so busy.

  要不是这么忙的话,她就已经来了.

  一、单选

  1 When Li Ming hurried home, he found that his mother ____already____to hospital.

  A has; been sent B had; sent C has; sent D had; been sent

  2 We ____five English songs by the end of last term.

  A had learned B learned C have learned D will have learned

  3 Han Mei told me she _____lunch, so she was very hungry.

  A has had B hasn't have C have had D hadn't had

  4 By the end of 1976, many buildings _____built in the city.

  A have been B have C had been D will

  5 She _____her keys in the office so she had to wait until her husband ____home.

  A has left; comes B had left; would come C had left; came D left; had come

  6 He said that it was at least ten years since I _____a good drink.

  A had enjoyed B was enjoying C have enjoyed D have been enjoying

  7 The meeting _____when Mr. Wang _____to school.

  A has begun; get B has been on; get C had begun; got D had been on; got

  二、填空

  1 When I returned home, he _____ (leave).

  2 By ten yesterday evening, she ________(finish)writing.

  3 He ______ (study) English for five years before he came here.

  4 It ____ _____ (stop) raining when I wake up this morning.

  5 I _____ (not read) the book because I had read it before.

  6 She said she____ (be) born in 1992.

  7 When he _____(come) to China two years ago he found people didn't understand him at all though he ________(learn) some Chinese in his own country.

  8 I saw Han Mei yesterday. We _____(not see) each other since left Beijing.

  9 When I got to his home, he_____(go) to bed.

  10 She asked if Mr. Liu _____ already _____(come) back.

  单选答案:1D 2 A 3 D 4 C 5 C 6 A 7 C

  填空答案:1 had left 2 had finished 3 had studied 4 had stopped 5 didn't read

  6 was 7 came had learned 8 hadn't seen 9 had gone 10 had come

  现在完成时和过去完成时的区别与用法:

  现在完成时着眼于现在,强调过去发生的某动作对现在造成的影响和结果,或是由过去持续到现在的动作。

  I have cleaned the classroom .(强调扫地所产生的结果:地干净了!)

  We have lived here for ten years.(“住”从过去持续到现在的动作用现在完成时)

  We have lived here since we came here.(“住”是从过去持续到现在的动作用现在完成时)

  过去完成时则主要体现过去发生的两动作的先后有别,表达的是“过去的过去”,即比过去发生的某动作都还要“过去”,两动作中先发生的就用过去完成时,后发生的则只用一般过去时。运用过去完成时的句子往往有两过去的时间或动作,一定要注意这点哟!

  Mr Green had lived in New York for ten years before he came to China.("来”中国已过去,而先前“住”在纽约更过去!)(另外注意:“住”在纽约可没有持续到现在哟!)

  We had learned 1000 words by the end of last term.

  (“上期期末”已过去,而是在其前“学”的就更过去了!)

  现在完成时与一般过去时的区别

  1. 一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的事、存在的状态或经常发生的动作。说话的侧重点只在于陈述一件过去的事情,不强调对“现在”产生的影响。如:

  He visited Guilin in 1998.他1998年参观过桂林。(只说明去桂林的时间)

  2. 现在完成时表示动作发生在过去,对现在造成了影响或产生了结果。不与确定的过去时间状语连用。如:

  Jill has bought a new computer.吉尔买了一台新电脑。(着重点是现在有了一台新电脑)

  3. 两种时态的区分

  (1)一般过去时的谓语动词用过去式,而现在完成时的谓语基本构成是“助动词have /has +过去分词”。如:

  (2)一般过去时通常与表示过去的时间状语连用。如:yesterday, last week, two years ago, just now, in 2002等;而现在完成时则常与just, already, ever, never等副词和these days, this week, since..., for...等表示一段时间的状语连用。

  看看以下的几组句子,有什么区别?

  ① Have you seen the film?(A)

  Did you see the film?(B)

  [说明] 你看过这部电影吗?(A)句强调的是被问者对剧情是否了解;(B)句强调的是看这部电影的动作是否发生过,并不强调是否知道其内容。

  ② How has he done it?(A)

  How did he do it?(B)

  [说明]他是怎么做的这件事?(A)句强调的是他做这件事的方式对现在产生了某种影响;(B)句单纯的

  询问做这件事的方式。

  ③ He has lived in Beijing for 8 years.(A)

  He lived in Beijing for 8 years.(B)

  [说明]他在北京住了8年。(A)句讲的是到目前为止他在北京住了8年,可能还会继续在北京住下去。(B)句讲的是他在北京住过8年,现在不在北京了。
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