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2009年6月大学英语四级完型填空考前备战(9)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午9:04
  技巧:

  语篇的衔接

  分析语篇的衔接手段有助于我们准确把握文章的结构,加强对语篇连贯性、一致性和逻辑联系的理解和认识,从而透彻理解全篇内容。语篇的衔接手段分析如下:

  1.语法手段

  (1)照应:指使话语中某一实体的所指在文本中得以确定的语义关系。它是一些起信号作用的词汇,其语义必须从该词语所指的对象中寻找答案。

  照应分为人称照应、指示照应和比较照应。比较照应通过形容词和副词的比较级等形式以及其他一些有比较意义的词语

  (same`identical`such`equal`different`otherwise等)表示照应关系。

  (2)替代:通过用某一词替代前面句中出现的名词(短语)、动词(短语)或小句来实现的衔接关系。替代有名词替代、动词替代和小句替代。

  (3)省略:指把语篇中某些成分省去不提。省略使上下句在语义上建立一种相互依赖关系,使语篇紧凑,被省略的成分能从上下文中找到。省略可分为名词省略、动词省略和小句省略。

  (4)连接:指连接成分凭借其自身的意义使语篇建立句子间的语义联系。Halliday和Hasan把连接分为添加(in addition等)、转折、因果和时间。

  2.词汇手段

  指语篇中使用一些相互之间存在意义联系的词语,从而建立一个贯穿语篇的语义链,保证语篇的连贯性。词汇手段分为重复、同义/反义、上下义和词汇搭配。此处的搭配指一般意义上句子中同一结构内的词语搭配(如动词与名词、形容词与名词等),习惯性共现类型的搭配(如hair与comb,sky与sunshine等)。

  题目:

  As is known to all, the organization and management of wages and salaries are very complex. Generally speaking, the Accounts Department is __1__ for calculations of pay, while the Personnel Department is interested in discussions with the employees about pay.

  If a firm wants to __2__ a new wage and salary structure, it is essential that the firm should decide on a __3__ of job evaluation and ways of measuring the performance of its employees. In order to be __4__, that new pay structure will need agreement between Trade Unions and employers. In job evaluation, all of the requirements of each job are defined in a detailed job description. Each of thsoe requirements is given a value, usually in "points", which are __5__ together to give a total value for the job. For middle and higher management, a special method is used to evaluate managers on their knowledge of the job, their responsibility, and their __6__ to solve problems. Because of the difficulty in measuring management work, however, job grades for managers are often decided without __7__ to an evaluation system based on points.

  In attempting to design a pay system, the Personnel Department should __8__ the value of each job with these in the job market. __9__, payment for a job should vary with any differences in the way that the job is performed. Where it is simple to measure the work done, as in the works done with hands, monetary encouragement schemes are often chosen, for __10__ workers, where measurement is difficult, methods of additional payments are employed.

  [A]compare

  [B]responsible

  [C]useful

  [D]added

  [E]find

  [F]reference

  [G]indirect

  [H]method

  [I]successful

  [J]combined

  [K]Necessarily

  [L]capacity

  [M]ability

  [N]Basically

  [O]adopt

  答案&解析:

  1.选B)此处应填形容词。原文意思为“会计部门...计算报酬”,选项中的形容词responsible“负责任的”,useful“有用的”,indirect“间接的”,successful“成功的”,其中indirect不能与for连用,排除;剩余几项中只有B)responsible意义符合原句,其他均不符合,故排除。

  2.选O)此处应填动词原形。本文主题就是采用一种新的工资和薪水制度时需要注意的问题,选项中的动词原形有compare“比较”,find“找到”,adopt“采纳”,分别带入原文,只有adopt最符合原文意思,故选O).

  3.选H)此处应填名词。从原文看,and连接并列结构,所以要填的词应与and后面的ways意思一致,选项中的名词只有mathod = ways,故选H)method。

  4.选I)此处应填形容词。上文说新的工资制度需要一套决定工作评估和衡量雇员表现的方法,说的是制度“是否有用”的问题。这句说的时新的工资制度执行过程中的问题,劳资双方先期达成一致是薪酬制度成功的必要条件。形容词useful和successful,I)seccessful更符合原文意思。

  5.选D)此处应填动词。这个动词的宾语是point“分值”,把分值...起来to give a total value"得出总分值",选项中有added和combined,前者指“把...相加”,后者意为“把...结合在一起”,原文指将分值相加得出总分,故D)added最符合文意。

  6.选M)此处应填名词。首先solve problem“解决问题”是经理们应具备的能力,选项中的capacity与ability都可以表示“能力”;前者强调的是理解的能力和接受事物的能力,而后者强调实际应用的能力,故不难判断解决问题的能力应该用M)ability。

  7.选F)此处应填名词。前半句指出“因为管理工作很难评估,经理的工作得分不需要参照基于分值的评估系统决定。”without reference to为固定搭配,意思是“与...无关”。故选F)reference。

  8.选A)此处应填动词原形。原句中出现了the value of each job“每种工作的价值”和these in the job market“工作市场上的(工作价值)”,说明人事部门通过比较两种价值来计算工资制度。选项中只有compare表示“比较”,所以A)正确。

  9.选K)此处应填副词,修饰整句话。“报酬要随工作表现各方面的不同而有所改变”,选项中Necessarily“必须地”与Basically“基本地”为副词,分别带入原文,“报酬...的变化是必须的”更符合上下文意思,故排除N),选K)。

  10.选G)此处应填形容词。前文中提到一种情况即simple to measure the work done"易于评估的工作",通常用现金奖励办法;而...measurement is difficult“难于评估的”,说明这些工作人员的工作不像手工工作那么直接,因而是间接的,故选项中只有G)indirect符合原句的意思。

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1 Response to '2009年6月大学英语四级完型填空考前备战(9)'

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