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2009年6月大学英语四级完型填空考前备战(7)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午8:57
  The typical pre-industrial family not only had a good many children, but numerous other dependents as well---grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousions. Such "extended" families were suited for survival in slow paced __1__ societies. But such families are hard to __2__. They are immobile.Industrialism demanded masses of workers ready and able to move off the land in pursuit of jobs, and to move again whenever necessary. Thus the extended family __3__ shed its excess weight and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged---a stripped-down, portable family unit __4__ only of parents and a small set of children. This new style family, far more __5__ than the traditional extended family, became the standard model in all the industrial counties. Super-industrialism, however, the next stage of eco-technological development, __6__ even higher mobility. Thus we may expect many among the people of the future to carry the streamlinling process, a stePfurther by remaining children, cutting the family down to its more __7__ components, aman and a woman. Two people, perhaps with matched careers, will prove more efficient at navigating through education and social status, through job changes and geographic relocations, than teh ordinarily child-cluttered family.A __8__ may be the postponement of children, rather than childlessness. Men and women today are often torn in __9__ between a commitment to career and a commitment to children. In the future, many __10__ will sidestePthis problem by deferring the entire task of raising children until after retirement.

  A)transplant B)solution C)gadually D)transport E)elemental F)conflict G)continually

  H)mobile I)couples J)agricultural k)including L)compromise M)requires N)primary O)consisting

  1. 选J)此处应填形容词,修饰名次societies。文章第一句就说The typical pre-industrial family...“工业化之前的典型家庭模式......”, 即“extended" family存在于工业化之前的社会,即agricultural society。故J)正确。选项中的primary”最初的,原始的“不符合原文意思。

  2. 选A)由be hard to do sth.可知,此处应填动词原形。They are immobile“这样的家庭很难流动”,这说明这样的家庭are hard to...,选项中由transplant和transport两个动词原形,前者指的是“迁居,迁移”,后者指的是运输,不难推断前者符合原文意思,故A)transplant正确。3. 选C)。因为这句话的句子结构完整,固此处应填副词。选项中的副词有gradually和continually,原文中...and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged.所谓的“核心家庭”便出现了“,emerge的意思是“浮现" ,强调经过一个过程后出现的。由此可以判断,这句话坏死说明核心家庭从无到有逐渐出现,而不是连续不断地出现,故选择C)gradually>

  4. 选O)该句可拆分理解,即a family unit... of parents and a smell set of children "一个家庭单元......父母和不多的孩子“,由此可以推出这里要填的词是表示”包含,由......组成“的。选项中的including和consisting均可以表示此意,但由原文中的of可排除including,consist of为固定刺诸,故O)为正确答案。

  5. 选H)从原文中的more...than可知,此处应填形容词,构成形容词的比较级结构。由第一段最后一句可知the traditional extended family是immobile,那么新型的家庭模式比旧的因该是更有流动性,故应选H)mobile,说明新型的家庭模式的优点。

  6. 选M)此处应填动词,作这句话的谓语。Super-industrialism“(更发达的)超级工业化”......更具流动性的家庭。可推知空格处应填表示“需要,需求”的词。requires表示出自一种迫切的需要而提出的要求,很明显选择M)requires。

  7. 选E)此处应填形容词,用来修饰名词components。文中说明家庭被减缩到最......的成员,即由男人和女人组成,男人和女人是一个家庭最基本的成员。选项中的E)elemental“基本的,本质的”,而N)primary“主要的,最早的”,原文强调的是男人和女人是一个家庭最basic的组成部分,故E)更符合原文意思。

  8.选l)此处应填名词。上段说两人家庭的优点,本句中提到rather than childlessness“而不是不要孩子”,说明晚要孩子是解决工作和孩子的折中的办法,故选项中的L)compromise“妥协,折中”符合文意。而solution虽然也表示解决办法,但不能表达夫妇们无可奈何的心情,故排除。

  9.选F)上题中已提到工作和要孩子之间存在矛盾即conflict,根据上下文意思,这个题相对容易。

  10.选I)这段一直在说一个家庭里男人和女人因为工作和要孩子的事情发生争吵,那么将来要解决这个问题的仍然是家庭中的夫妻两人,故这里应填I)couples。

  导读:

  The typical pre-industrial family not only had a good many children, but numerous other dependents as well---grandparents, uncles, aunts and cousions. Such "extended" families were suited for survival in slow paced J)agricultural societies. But such families are hard to A)transplant. They are immobile.(The typical pre-industrial family="extended" family),第一段说明工业化前的大家庭模式的特点:很难流动。)

  Industrialism demanded masses of workers ready and able to move off the land in pursuit of jobs, and to move again whenever necessary. Thus the extended family C)gradually shed its excess weight and the so-called "nuclear" family emerged---a stripped-down, portable family unit O)consisting only of parents and a small set of children. This new style family, far more H)mobile than the traditional extended family, became the standard model in all the industrial counties. Super-industrialism, however, the next stage of eco-technological development, M)requires even higher mobility. Thus we may expect many among the people of the future to carry the streamlinling process, a stePfurther by remaining children, cutting the family down to its more E)elemental components, aman and a woman. Two people, perhaps with matched careers, will prove more efficient at navigating through education and social status, through job changes and geographic relocations, than teh ordinarily child-cluttered family.(第二段与第一段形成对比,说明industrialism“工业化”要求家庭必须流动,导致大家庭变得越来越小,甚至只剩下最基本的成员:男人和女人。)

  A D)transport may be the postponement of children, rather than childlessness. Men and women today are often torn in F)conflict between a commitment to career and a commitment to children. In the future, many I)couples will sidestePthis problem by deferring the entire task of raising children until after retirement. (最后一段说明工业化背景下,参加工作和要孩子之间存在矛盾。)

  全文翻译:

  工业化之前的典型的家庭模式不仅包括许多孩子,而且还有很多其他的家庭成员----祖父母,叔叔,婶婶,堂兄妹等。这样的大家庭适合在慢节奏的农业社会中生存,但这样的家庭很难迁移和流动。工业化需要大量乐意并能够离开家乡外出寻找工作的工人,而且他们可以根据需要随时流动。这样,大家庭渐渐摆脱了多余的成员,而所谓的“核心家庭”便出现了:这种家庭是只包括父母和小孩的迁移方便的小家庭。这种远远比传统大家庭更易于流动的新型家庭模式便成为所有工业国家的标准模式。然而,超级工业化,即下一个阶段的生态科技的发展,要求家庭具有更大的流动性。因此我们期待:在将来,许多人采取继续进一步缩小的家庭模式。除了孩子,把家庭缩减到它的最基本成员,即只有一个男人和一个女人。夫妻两人,也许由于职业旗鼓相当,将比孩子成群的家庭在接受教育和处理社会问题方面更加爱得心应手,在更换工作类型和工作地点的方面更为有效。折中的解决办法就是推迟要孩子,而不是不要孩子。现在的男人和女人在忠于事业和抚养孩子之间总是引起冲突。在将来,许多夫妇会把全力以赴抚养孩子推迟到退休以后,以回避这一问题。

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