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2009年6月大学英语四级翻译备考(12)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午3:45
  数字的表达

  在汉英翻译中,我们经常会遇到数量增加、减少的问题。然而英汉两种语言在倍数增减的表达上存在着很大差异,别说翻译了,就算是拿一篇现成的段落或文章来考考大家的阅读理解能力,也未必所有人都能准确理解文章内容。请读者试着翻译这个句子:

  与去年同期相比,今年的出口总量增长了两倍。

  译文:The total amount of the export has increased by three times, compared to the same time last year.

  分析:该句涉及数量的变化。今年出口总量增加了两倍,是说在去年总量的基础上再增加了两倍。那么,也就是说今年的总量应该已经增长到去年同期的三倍。所以by three times为正解。这题前面讲过的了,加深一下印象。

  1)表示陈述某个数量的句型。除最常用的系动词加数词之外,还可以用...go up to...,...as+adj. +as...,...has reached to...,...rise to...等。

  例1 快过年了,大白菜的价格已接近3元一斤。

  译文:The New Year is coming, and the price of the cabbage goes up to nearly 3 Yuan per kilogram.

  2)表示数量比较和增减的句型。表示数量比较和增减的句型很多,大致包括...as...as...,...as...again as...,...数量词+as...as...,...as...as+数量词,...数量词+比较级+than...,比较级+than...by...,...数量词+the size(length,volume)of...,...数量词+that of...,...表增减的动词+by/ to/over/down...数量词。

  例2 这种商店的价格是前一种商品的两倍。

  译文:The price of this product is twice as much as that of the previous one.

  例3 小轿车车速比大货车快一倍。

  译文:The car runs as fast again as the truck.

  例4:这只桶能装那只桶三倍的水。

  译文:This barrel can hold three times as much water as that one.

  例5 这家医院的缴费是一般医院的三至五倍。

  译文:This hospital charges three to five times that of ordinary ones.

  例6 去年该工厂的产量下降到2003年的65%。

  译文:The output of that factory last year fell to 65% of the output in 2003.

  3)特殊词语表示数量比较和增减。除了上面介绍的表示数量变化的句型之外,还有一些特殊的单词可以直接表示数量增减。这些单词通常用作形容词或动词,在句中充当表语或谓语。这些单词比使用某些句型来得更简洁,也比较容易掌握。

  首先是以-ble和-ple结尾的表示倍数的词。这里介绍从"两倍"到"十倍"的英文表达,大家可以从中找出表述规律。

  两倍double 三倍treble/ triple 四倍quadruple 五倍quintuple

  六倍sextuple 七倍septuple 八倍octuple 九倍nonuple

  十倍decuple

  有读者或许会问:"一倍"怎么说?如果说A的数量是B的一倍,那不就是A=B吗?即:A equals B。如果说A比B多一倍,也就等于A的数量是B的两倍,就要用double一词了。所以英文里一般不说...as one time as...。但是有half as much again的说法,意为"一倍半"。

  另外,英文里有一个很管用的后缀。当你想不起来倍数的表达的时候,不妨在数字后面加上它,准没错!它就是-- -fold。当然这个后缀是表示数量的增加。请大家用这些特殊数字表达法来翻译下列句子:

  例7 预计下月我的工资会翻两翻。

  译文:It's expected that my salary will triple next month.

  例8 自1974年以来,计算机进口量增加了7倍。

  译文:The number of computer imports has been septupled since

  例9 这个月水费开支是原来的四倍。

  译文:The water rate quadrupled this month.

  例10 过去五年中,我公司的销售额已增长至四倍。

  译文:Sales in our company have increased up to four-fold in the last five years.

  例11 我买进这些邮票后他们的价格已经提高了三倍。

  译文:The value of these stamps has multiplied three-fold after I bought them.

  英语中,尤其是科技英语中,会涉及到大量的数字表达。翻译数字不仅需要一定的翻译技巧,还要具备相关的专业知识,并根据原文的上下文所表达的意思判断,从中探求正确的译法。英语与汉语里数字增减的表述都是有一定规律可循的。但是这样的句型和表达很多,因此考生要对这些句型逐个加以记忆以免错译。学会准确地表达数字,不仅适用于六级翻译新题型,也同样适用于六级作文题。尤其是图表作文对数字的描述要求非常高。

  专项练习

  1. He is ________________ (他与其说是个学者)as a writer.

  2. The parents should also set the kids free _______________ (以便他们自己做选择).

  3. Some freshmen _____________(打定主意)to pursue a master's degree after undergraduate studies.

  4. So it is essential for the students _____________(深入社会实践)in order to learn something that they can't get in class.

  5.In order to improve the competence of state-run enterprises,the central government ________________(已经实行了一系列改革),among which is cutting down the staff.

  翻译讲解

  1. not so much a scholar

  解析:本句意为:与其说他是个学者不如说是个作家。考查的是"与其......倒不如......"的句型。句中所给部分已有as,所以最好用not so much...as...。如:In many cases,nursing is not so much a job as a way of life.(在许多情况下,护理与其说是是一件工作倒不如说是一种生活方式。)

  2. to make their own choices

  解析:考查目的状语"以便"的英文表达,正确答案可以是:in order to/to/so as to+动词,也可以用in order/so+that从句。具体要根据字数要求定。

  3. make up their minds

  解析:本句意为:许多大一新生打定主意要在本科毕业后继续争取硕士学位。"打定主意、决定下来"可选用:make up one's mind to do,be determined to do,decide to do。题中pursue表示坚持不懈地追求,如:She pursued the study of English for five years.(她持续不断地学了五年英语。)

  4. to participate in social practice

  解析:本句意为:对学生而言,有必要深入社会实践,从而学到课堂上学不到的东西。"深入"事实上是指学生要参与社会实践,因此确切译法是to participate,"社会实践"可译成social practice或social activity。

  5. has implemented a series of reforms

  解析:本句意为:为了提高国有企业的竞争力,政府已经实行了一系列改革,其中一项是裁员。这里大家要记住"国有企业"的表达,而"外资企业"应译为 oversea-funded enterprise或foreign-based company。"实行"可选用implement,carry out,由于是"一系列"改革,因此reform要用复数形式。另外"已经"暗示句子应该用完成时态。
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