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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二十四)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午2:47
  Passage One

  Questions 11 to 15 are based on the following passage.

  A is for always getting to work on time.

  B is for being extremely busy.

  C is for the conscientious (勤勤恳恳的) way you do your job.

  You may be all these things at the office, and more. But when it comes to getting ahead, experts say, the ABCs of business should include a P, for politics, as in office politics.

  Dale Carnegie suggested as much more than 50 years ago: Hard work alone doesn’t ensure career advancement. You have to be able to sell yourself and your ideas, both publicly and behind the scenes. Yet, despite the obvious rewards of engaging in office politics—a better job, a raise, praise—many people are still unable—or unwilling—to “play the game.”

  “People assume that office politics involves some manipulative (工于心计的) behavior,” says Deborah Comer, an assistant professor of management at Hofstra University. “But politics derives from the word ‘polite’. It can mean lobbying and forming associations. It can mean being kind and helpful, or even trying to please your superior, and then expecting something in return.”

  In fact, today, experts define office politics as proper behavior used to pursue one’s own self-interest in the workplace. In many cases, this involves some form Of Socializing within the office environment—not just in large companies, but in small workplaces as well.

  “The first thing people are usually judged on is their ability to perform well on a consistent basis,’” says Neil P Lewis, a management psychologist. “But if two or three candidates are up for a promotion, each of whom has reasonably similar ability, a manager is going to promote the person he or she likes best. It’s simple human nature.”

  Yet, psychologists say, many employees and employers have trouble with the concept of politics in the office. Some people, they say, have an idealistic vision of work and what it takes to succeed. Still others associate politics with flattery (奉承), fearful that, if they speak up for themselves, they may appear to be flattering their boss for favors.

  Experts suggest altering this negative picture by recognizing the need for some self-promotion.

  11. “Office politics” (Line 2, Para. 4) is used in the passage to refer to ________.

  A) the code of behavior for company staff

  B) the political views and beliefs of office workers

  C) the interpersonal relationships within a company

  D) the various qualities required for a successful career(C)

  12. To get promoted, one must not only be competent but ________.

  A) give his boss a good impression

  B) honest and loyal to his company

  C) get along well with his colleagues

  D) avoid being too outstanding(D)

  13. Why are many people unwilling to “play the game” (Line 4, Para. 5)?

  A) They believe that doing so is impractical.

  B) They feel that such behavior is unprincipled.

  C) They are not good at manipulating colleagues.

  D) They think the effort will get them nowhere.(B)

  14. The author considers office politics to be ________.

  A) unwelcome at the workplace

  B) bad for interpersonal relationships

  C) indispensable to the development of company culture

  D) an important factor for personal advancement(D)

  15. It is the author’s view that ________.

  A) speaking up for oneself is part of human nature

  B) self-promotion does not necessarily mean flattery

  C) hard work contributes very little to one’s promotion

  D) many employees fail to recognize the need of flattery(B)

  这篇材料的主要内容是办公室政治(office politics),从介绍办公室政治的含义、好处开始,讲到现实生活中人们不愿进行办公室政治的现象及其原因,最后给出了改变这种情况的建议。

  前面的几段主要是介绍办公室政治的含义及其所能带来的好处。前三个句子以A、B、C打头列出了办公室生存的基本原则,而后把办公室政治作为它们的补充自然地提了出来(为了与ABC相搭配,简称为P)。作者引用Carnegie的话对办公室政治做了初步的定义,也就是be able to sell yourself and your ideas, both publicly and behind the scenes,无论公开非公开场合,都要能够推销你自己和你自己的想法。后面紧接着的一句话一箭双雕,既说出了办公室政治的好处(a better job, a raise, praise),也指出人们不愿搞办公室政治的事实,为下文分析原因、提出建议铺好了道路。

  后面的几段主要是来分析办公室政治在一些人那里不受欢迎*考试&大的原因。首先人们把它看做是工于心计的行为(manipulative behavior),而后作者对这一原因做了评析,指出办公室政治实际上并不如此(反而源于polite,礼貌)。下一段介绍专家的观点,进一步解释办公室政治的含义和应用的正当性,而后引用Neil P Lewis的话对此做了强调(It’s simple human nature,办公室政治是人类的天性而已)。

  最后一段简单地给出了建议:承认自我的推销的需要(recognizing the need for some self-promotion)。

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