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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(十四)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午2:02
  Passage Three

  Questions 31 to 35 are based on the following passage.

  “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.” Said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While here’s on question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you.

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they stress that you can manage also boost immune (免疫的) function. In a study at the Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects through a gory (血淋淋的) video on surgical procedures. Those who did well on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that’s the body’s first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.

  Stress prompts the body to produce certain stress hormones. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. “They can help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage,” says Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York. But in the long run these hormones can have a harmful effect on the body and brain.

  “Sustained stress is not good for you,” says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University in Illinois studying the effects of stress on longevity, “It’s the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to stress that could be protective.”

  31. The passage is mainly about ________.

  A) the benefits of manageable stress

  B) stay away from

  C) run out of

  D) put up with(D)

  32. The word “shun” (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means ________.

  A) cut down on

  B) stay away from

  C) run out of

  D) put up with(B)

  33. We can conclude from the study of the 158 nurses in 2001 that ________.

  A) people under stress tend to have a poor memory

  B) people who can’t get their job done experience more stress

  C) doing challenging work may be good for one’s health

  D) stress will weaken the body’s defense against germs(C)

  34. In the experiment described in Paragraph 3, the video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody because ________.

  A) the video was not enjoyable at all

  B) the outcome was beyond their control

  C) they knew little about surgical procedures

  D) they felt no pressure while watching the video(B)

  35. Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University believes that ________.

  A) a person’s memory is determined by the level of hormones in his body

  B) stress hormones have lasting positive effects on the brain

  C) short bursts of stress hormones enhance memory function

  D) a person’s memory improves with continued experience of stress(C)

  首先需要指出的是,这篇文章因真题试卷排版问题出现了许多错漏句的情况,给文意的理解带来了很大的困难,有些题目是根本无法作答的,这一点比较遗憾,我们也只能就能够通畅理解的部分提出一些看法。

  这是一篇学术论文性质的文章,主要介绍压力对人体的影响。全篇材料一共四段,第一段开头即引用了一位医生对压力的观点,暗示出本文讨论的是学术级别的论题。之后,文章用一个长句对医生的观点进行了解释。这个长句总体结构比较简单,while引导的从句打头,后面是一个主句。While在这里是“虽然”的意思,表明while引导的内容不是论述的重点,重点在主句当中。主句的意思是几项研究表明(several studies suggest),如果能够成功应对挑战性环境,那么这种环境对人也是有益的(rise to the occasion是一个短语,意思是成功应对困难环境)。可以看到,这里的最终观点是挑战性环境(也即压力)可以对人有益,但前提是能够成功应对压力。

  第二段描述了上文提到了several studies(几项研究),一共两项研究,第一项是2001年对158家医院护士的调查,文章没有详述研究过程,直接给出了研究结果。第二个是阿姆斯特丹一家牙科研究中心所做的实验:记忆力测试。

  第三段对实验结果进行了理论上的分析:短期内荷尔蒙的爆发会产生积极影响(In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect),如使神经细胞更好地分析、记忆信息(help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage)。段末指出长期的荷尔蒙影响则会有害于身体健康。最后一段继续引用研究人员的话强调长短期压力对身体的不同影响。

  31. The passage is mainly about ________.

  A) the benefits of manageable stress

  B) stay away from

  C) run out of

  D) put up with(D)

  题目问这篇短文主要写的是什么。

  在四级阅读考试中,第一道题即考查对全篇理解的情况比较少见,这种题多数是在最后一道中出现,需要在通读全篇后,综合各种信息再作解答。

  本题在试卷印刷方面出了问题,B、C、D三个答案选项错印成了32题的选项,致使本题无法作答。至于本文的中心思想,可以参考前面的分析。

  32. The word “shun” (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means ________.

  A) cut down on

  B) stay away from

  C) run out of

  D) put up with

  题目问单词shun最可能是什么意思。

  这个单词出现在Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise一句中,该句作为全文开篇句,有提示文章中心论题的作用。文章的中心论题是成功应对压力对人有益,要正确(B)理解这句话必须结合这一中心论题。

  Shun前面的半句意思是人类不应设法回避压力,后面是一个比较级more than,它与前面的not构成not more than,表示“大体相当于、只是”的意思,那么后半句的句意就必须能与前半句形成对比。可以想象food、love、exercise应该充当前面stress的角色,而shun应该起的avoid的作用,大体意思也应是回避。前后意思联系起来就是:人类不应设法回避压力,就像不应回避食物、爱和锻炼一样。这里暗含的意思是压力并非有害,而是像食物、爱和锻炼一样对人是有益的,这个意思与文章的中心论题一致,可以认为shun的意义类似于回避。

  A,减少

  B,远离

  C,用完

  D,忍受

  四个选项中含义回避意义的只有B,因为stay away from可以指远离,在具体语境中也可以指回避。

  33. We can conclude from the study of the 158 nurses in 2001 that ________.

  A) people under stress tend to have a poor memory

  B) people who can’t get their job done experience more stress

  C) doing challenging work may be good for one’s health

  D) stress will weaken the body’s defense against germs

  题目问我们能从2001年对158名护士的研究中得出什么结论。

  文章对2001年这项研究的描述仅限于一个长句,本题考查的就是对这个长句的理解。遗憾的是,这里再次出现了排版错误,致使句子结构混乱,意义不清,不过,从大体结构上还是能把握本句的大意。

  In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they stress that you can manage also boost immune (免疫的) function。

  可以看出本句的主语应该是those, 而who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge是those的定语从句,修饰those,意思是“那些面对相当大的工作要求却能应对挑战的人”。谓语是由were引导的比较级,意思是“更可能会说他们的健康状况良好”。比谁更有可能说这句话呢?than后面给出了答案:those who felt they,那些感觉自己如何如何的人。在they后面出现了排版错误,据推断应该是漏掉了感觉的内容,而后面的stress that you can manage also boost immune function应该是另外一个新句子,在stress前面可以补上“this showed that the”,与后面的句子连成this showed that the stress you can manage also boost immune function,意思是“这一实验说明,压力,如果能够成功应对,同样可以提高免疫功能”。

  A,压力下的人往往记忆力差。这个实验没有提到压力与记忆力的关系,也许在漏掉的内容中有相关的叙述,但现有情况下无从知晓。

  B,无法完成工作的人体验到更大的压力。这个说法同样涉及漏掉的内容。不过前半句已经有“那些面对相当大的工作要求却能应对挑战的人”,那么与此对应的很有可能是“面对工作却无法应对挑战即无法完成的人”。所以说B的说法有可能是正确的。

  C,进行挑战性的工作对人的健康有益。这个说法可以排除,因为只有那些进行并能成功完成挑战性工作的人才会更为健康,C的说法缺少条件。

  D,压力会减弱人体对细菌的抵抗力。这是另外一个实验的内容。

  这样看来,可以确定排除的选项是C和D,而A提到的记忆力与第二个实验的关系比较大,很有可能是迷惑选项,这样最好是选择B。(C)

  34. In the experiment described in Paragraph 3, the video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody because ________.

  A) the video was not enjoyable at all

  B) the outcome was beyond their control

  C) they knew little about surgical procedures

  D) they felt no pressure while watching the video(B)

  题目问在第三段所描述的实验中,观看视频的人经历了抗体的减少,原因是什么。

  文章第三段提到阿姆斯特丹的这所研究中心进行了一项研究,研究分为两组(two stressful experiences),不过文中只描述了其中观看视频的一组,另一组的具体情形没有描述。而从全段来看,这缺失的一组对本题的回答是有帮助的。因此,可以猜测这里在排版时很可能又漏掉了一些内容。另外,对第一组实验的描述也存在问题。In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects through a gory video on surgical procedures,分析这个句子可知它没有谓语,可以把a timed task看作是主语,that required memorizing a list是主语的定语从句。而followed by a short test是个省略了which的定语从句(which was followed by a short test),所以follow不是谓语。对follow不是谓语的判断源于by这个词,既然有by,就表示followed是被动语态,那么一定要接在was后面,但这里was省略了,可以就此判断这是个定语从句。这样的话,前半句没有出现谓语,那么后半句呢?后半句中没有一个动词,所以根本不可能存在谓语;subject可以作为动词使用,表示“隶属于”,但文章使用的过去时态,subjects是一般现在时,不符合语法,所以subject不是动词。

  这样只能认为这又是一个错句。如此多的错误出现在关键部位,文章的理解尚成问题,也就谈不上正确回答问题了。

  A,因为视频一点也不好看。

  B,这一结果是他们无法控制的。

  C,他们对外科手术过程知之甚少。

  D,观看视频时他们感觉不到压力。

  35. Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University believes that ________.

  A) a person’s memory is determined by the level of hormones in his body

  B) stress hormones have lasting positive effects on the brain

  C) short bursts of stress hormones enhance memory function

  D) a person’s memory improves with continued experience of stress

  题目问Bruce McEwen医生认为什么。

  可以看出本题考查的是对最后两小段的理解。这两段不难理解,其核心意思是短期压力对人有益,长期压力对人无益。

  A, 人的记忆力是被身体里的考试*大]荷尔蒙水平决定的。根据文意,荷尔蒙对人的记忆力产生了一定影响,但称其“决定”了记忆力水平就太夸张了。

  B, 压力荷尔蒙对大脑有持续的积极影响。文中谈到长期的压力荷尔蒙对人有害(Sustained stress is not good for you),与本选项正好相反。

  C,压力荷尔蒙的短期爆发会加强记忆功能。In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function,这一句与C的说法完全一致。

  D, 随着人不断感受到压力,人的记忆力也随之改善。continued experience of stress可以理解为长期的压力,而根据文意,这种压力对人体是有害的。

  C的说法正确。

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