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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二十八)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 上午11:58
  Passage One

  Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage.

  I’m usually fairly skeptical about any research that concludes that people are either happier or unhappier or more or less certain of themselves than they were 50 years ago. While any of these statements might be true, they are practically impossible to prove scientifically. Still, I was struck by a report which concluded that today’s children are significantly more anxious than children in the 1950s. In fact, the analysis showed, normal children ages 9 to 17 exhibit a higher level of anxiety today than children who were treated for mental illness 50 years ago.

  Why are America’s kids so stressed? The report cites two main causes: increasing physical isolation—brought on by high divorce rates and less involvement in community, among other things—and a growing perception that the world is a more dangerous place.

  Given that we can’t turn the clock back, adults can still do plenty to help the next generation cope.

  At the top of the list is nurturing (培育) a better appreciation of the limits of individualism. No child is an island. Strengthening social ties helps build communities and protect individuals against stress.

  To help kids build stronger connections with others, you can pull the plug on TVs and computers. Your family will thank you later. They will have more time for face-to-face relationships, and they will get more sleep.

  Limit the amount of virtual (虚拟的) violence your children are exposed to. It’s not just video games and movies; children see a lot of murder and crime on the local news.

  Keep your expectations for your children reasonable. Many highly successful people never attended Harvard or Yale.

  Make exercise part of your daily routine. It will help you cope with your own anxieties and provide a good model for your kids. Sometimes anxiety is unavoidable. But it doesn’t have to ruin your life.

  21. The author thinks that the conclusions of any research about people’s state of mind are ________.

  A) surprising

  B) confusing

  C) illogical

  D) questionable(D)

  22. What does the author mean when he says, “we can’t turn the clock back” (Line 1, Para. 3)?

  A) It’s impossible to slow down the pace of change.

  B) The social reality children are facing cannot be changed.

  C) Lessons learned from the past should not be forgotten.

  D) It’s impossible to forget the past.(B)

  23. According to an analysis, compared with normal children today, children treated as mentally ill 50 years ago ________.

  A) were less isolated physically

  B) were probably less self-centered

  C) probably suffered less from anxiety

  D) were considered less individualistic(C)

  24. The first and most important thing parents should do to help their children is ________.

  A) to provide them with a safer environment

  B) to lower their expectations for them

  C) to get them more involved socially

  D) to set a good model for them to follow(C)

  25. What conclusion can be drawn from the passage?

  A) Anxiety, though unavoidable, can be coped with.

  B) Children’s anxiety has been enormously exaggerated.

  C) Children’s anxiety can be eliminated with more parental care.

  D) Anxiety, if properly controlled, may help children become mature.(C)

  这是一篇评论社会问题的文章,文章核心是当今儿童所肩负的压力问题。文章采用了经典的论说文结构:首先提出问题(第一段),而后分析问题(第二段),最后解决问题(其余部分)。

  第一段很长,而且多是比较复杂的长句,这与它“提出问题”这一功能有关,长句往往信息容量更大,逻辑也较清晰,能够更好地向人呈现问题的方方面面,语气也较为客观。在解决问题阶段,作者多使用短句,是因为这时文章的功能已经转换为向父母们传授经验方法,短句接近口语,亲切感更强,有“谆谆教诲”的意思。

  第一句话的基本结构是I’m skeptical about research(我怀疑某些研究的价值),至于是什么样的研究,作者用从句做了详细说明,后面的that代指research。从句的意思是说这些研究总是得出结论说现在的人们如何比50年前的人或快乐或不快乐等等。作者在第一句首先表明了一个观点,就是把不同历史时代的人们进行对比是没有意义的。随后就道出了原因:这种对比有可能是正确的,但在实证上无法得到论证(While any of these statements might be true, they are practically impossible to prove scientifically)。前两句占了第一段内容的一半,但实际上与文章的核心内容(儿童压力问题)关系不大,作者之所以如此浓墨重彩是为了突出其对一项关于不同时代儿童所受压力的研究的惊讶之情,进而增加读者对文章核心论题的关注度。

  第一段后半部分开始提出本文讨论的问题:normal children ages 9 to 17 exhibit a higher level of anxiety today than children who were treated for mental illness 50 years ago,现在的正常孩子比50年前接受精神治疗的孩子所受的压力还要大。这一观点确实耸人听闻,难怪作者要为此临时抛弃旧有的观念。

  第二段第一句话是Why are America’s kids so stressed?为什么美国的孩子承受了如此重压?很显然这里是要分析原因了。后面给出了两个原因,一个是孤独(physical isolation),另一个是认识到世界更加危险了(the world is a more dangerous place)。

  后面的部分都是对如何解决这一问题提出的忠告。

  首先就是要向孩子传达个人主义存在局限的观念(limits of individualism),孩子不是孤岛,社会联系可以为孩子减轻压力的冲击。

  为了帮助孩子与他人建立更加紧密的联系,可以拔掉电视和电脑的插头,这样他们就有了更多的时间与人面对面地交往,也有了更多的睡眠时间(They will have more time for face-to-face relationships, and they will get more sleep)。

  减少孩子接触虚拟暴力的机会。不仅包括视频游戏、电影,在新闻上也出现了太多的谋杀、犯罪(children see a lot of murder and crime on the local news)。

  不要对孩子的期望值过高。要知道许多成功人士从来没上过哈佛或是耶鲁大学(Many highly successful people never attended Harvard or Yale)。

  最后是要给孩子们做出榜样,告诉他们如何应对压力。方法就是坚持锻炼身体,这可以向孩子传达一个信息:有时忧虑是不可避免的,但那不至于毁了你的生活。

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