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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二十九)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午12:00
  Passage Two

  Questions 26 to 30 are based on the following passage.

  It is easier to negotiate initial salary requirement because once you are inside, the organizational constraints (约束) influence wage increases. One thing, however, is certain: your chances of getting the raise you feel you deserve are less if you don’t at least ask for it. Men tend to ask for more, and they get more, and this holds true with other resources, not just pay increases. Consider Beth’s story:

  I did not get what I wanted when I did not ask for it. We had cubicle (小隔间) offices and window offices. I sat in the cubicles with several male colleagues. One by one they were moved into window offices, while I remained in the cubicles, several males who were hired after me also went to offices. One in particular told me he was next in line for an office and that it had been part of his negotiations for the job. I guess they thought me content to stay in the cubicles since I did not voice my opinion either way.

  It would be nice if we all received automatic pay increases equal to our merit, but “nice” isn’t a quality attributed to most organizations. If you feel you deserve a significant raise in pay, you’ll probably have to ask for it.

  Performance is your best bargaining chip (筹码) when you are seeking a raise. You must be able to demonstrate that you deserve a raise. Timing is also a good bargaining chip. If you can give your boss something he or she needs (a new client or a sizable contract, for example) just before merit pay decisions are being made, you are more likely to get the raise you want.

  Use information as a bargaining chip too. Find out what you are worth on the open market.

  What will someone else pay for your services?

  Go into the negotiations prepared to place your chips on the table at the appropriate time and prepared to use communication style to guide the direction of the interaction.

  26. According to the passage, before taking a job, a person should ________.

  A) demonstrate his capability

  B) give his boss a good impression

  C) ask for as much money as he can

  D) ask for the salary he hopes to get(D)

  27. What can be inferred from Beth’s story?

  A) Prejudice against women still exists in some organizations.

  B) If people want what they deserve, they have to ask for it.

  C) People should not be content with what they have got.

  D) People should be careful when negotiating for a job.(B)

  28. We can learn from the passage that ________.

  A) unfairness exists in salary increases

  B) most people are overworked and underpaid

  C) one should avoid overstating one’s performance

  D) most organizations give their staff automatic pay raises(A)

  29. To get a pay raise, a person should ________.

  A) advertise himself on the job market

  B) persuade his boss to sign a long-term contract

  C) try to get inside information about the organization

  D) do something to impress his boss just before merit pay decisions(D)

  30. To be successful in negotiations, one must ________.

  A) meet his boss at the appropriate time

  B) arrive at the negotiation table punctually

  C) be good at influencing the outcome of the interaction

  D) be familiar with what the boss likes and dislikes(C)

  这篇文章讲的是职场加薪问题。开头先讲原始工资要求的提出更为容易(It is easier to negotiate initial salary requirement),这是为了和下文所讲的加薪要求的提出作为对比,引出材料主要讨论的话题。第一段后面还有两句话,一是说如果你不提出加薪请求的话,获得理应得到的加薪机会就会大大减少(your chances of getting the raise…… are less)。二是说男人们更喜欢要求,而且得到的也多(Men tend to ask for more, and they get more)。要注意这一句中的men是复数形式,那么就应该指的是“男人”,而不是统称的“人”。与此对应,女人在要求加薪上可能就要消极一些。由此可以推断第一段最后一句中的Beth是一位女士。

  下一段就开始以Beth的视角讲述她的职场遭遇。这些遭遇是对第一段提到的二点的证明。这一段句子很多,主要意思无非是男同事们一个个地连升三级,有了自己的办公室,而自己却一直苦守在最初的小隔间里。原因呢?在这段的开头就已经给出了:没有要求,就没有收获(I did not get what I wanted when I did not ask for it)。

  下一段又恢复了第三人称视角,说到如果我们都能够自动获得与价值相当的加薪将是多么美好(It would be nice if we all received automatic pay increases equal to our merit),但大多数公司并不如此美好,要想获得应得的加薪,最好还是自己提出申请。下文继续讲如何提出加薪要求。

  最后四段讲了如何提出加薪要求的要点,其中前三段是准备工作,最后一段是即时提出要求时应采取的策略。首先,要拿业绩说话(Performance is your best bargaining chip)。这里需要注意的是要能够让老板看到你的表现值得加薪(be able to demonstrate that you deserve a raise),另外提出要求的时机(Timing)也很重要,最好是在刚刚满足了老板的需求之后。

  其次,信息也是讨价还价的筹码(Use information as a bargaining chip too),要看看你在市场上能值什么价,看看别人会付给你多少钱。

  最后一段实际上讲的是提出要求的勇气和策略。Go into the negotiations,这是个祈使句,有鼓励、打气的含义。而后面的use communication style(以交流的态度)说的是提出要求时的基本策略。

  26. According to the passage, before taking a job, a person should ________.

  A) demonstrate his capability

  B) give his boss a good impression

  C) ask for as much money as he can

  D) ask for the salary he hopes to get

  题目是问在获得一个工作之前,一个人应当如何。

  A,展现他的能力。

  B,给他的老板留下一个好印象。

  C,尽量要求最多的薪水。

  D,要求希望得到的薪水。

  第一道题考查的必然是第一段——只要这一段不是太短。根据上面的分析可知,第一段里从第二句开始讲的都是如何要求加薪的问题,这已经是获得工作之后的事情了。本题问的是在获得工作之前如何如何,那么它的答案一定在第一句话中:It is easier to negotiate initial salary requirement because once you are inside, the organizational constraints influence wage increases。大意是:为原始工资谈判要更为容易,因为你一旦进入了公司以后,公司的限制就会影响工资增长。这句话只谈到了工资问题,所以第一步可以排除A和B,因为它们谈论的不是工资。C和D的区别只在于一个是尽量要求最多的工资,一个是只按自己的希望要求工资。实际上这二者本身有多大区别都很难说,因为一个人对工资的期望一般情况下当然是越多越好,那么C和D其实是可以互通的。但是我们必须选择出一个作为答案,那就只能揣测出题者的意思,是C对还是D对。

  这一句话前半句既没有说“尽量要求最高”也没有说“希望”,从这里很难做出判断。先不看前半句,来分析后半句:因为你一旦进入了公司以后,公司的限制就会影响工资增长。既然担心入职后会限制工资增长,那么可以做出这样的推断——最好是入职前谈好最理想的工资,否则入职后再谈涨工资就困难了。这样看来,出题者的意思很可能是选C,而不是事先希望的一个工资水平。很多机构给出的答案是D,其实并没有太多的依据。(D)

  27. What can be inferred from Beth’s story?

  A) Prejudice against women still exists in some organizations.

  B) If people want what they deserve, they have to ask for it.

  C) People should not be content with what they have got.

  D) People should be careful when negotiating for a job.(B)

  这道题是问从Beth的故事可以推断出什么。

  A,对女性的偏见在一些机构依然存在。

  B,如果人们想要得到他们理应得到的,就必须提出要求。

  C,人们不应该满足于他们已有的东西。

  D,为工作谈判时应该小心为妙。

  Beth的故事就是第二段,因为这里使用的人称是I,而到了第三段,人称变成了we,可以判断不是Beth讲述的内容了。第二段首先要注意的是第一句话:I did not get what I wanted when I did not ask for it.(当我没有提出要求时,我没有得到我想得到的),这是一个总领句,是后面部分所述的内容的核心,此后所说的具体故事都是为了说明这个观点。四个选项中B的说法与此最为接近,可以选B。C和D可以较容易地排除,A所说的偏见在文中并没有体现,导致女性工资停滞的原因是女性不愿主动提出涨工资的要求,而不是人们对女性的偏见。

  28. We can learn from the passage that ________.

  A) unfairness exists in salary increases

  B) most people are overworked and underpaid

  C) one should avoid overstating one’s performance

  D) most organizations give their staff automatic pay raises(A)

  题目问从文章可以了解到什么。

  A,在工资增长问题上存在不公之处。

  B,大多数人过度工作,报酬过低。

  C,一个人应该避免夸大自己的业绩表现。

  D,多数公司自动给员工增长工资。

  这个题目比较吓人,乍看之下似乎在考查对全篇文章的理解。但可以看到这只是第三道题,后面还有两道。如果这道考的是全篇理解,按道理后面两道也应该考查全篇理解。一篇阅读有五分之三考查全篇是不可能的。那么应该如何缩小目标范围呢?第二段已经考查过,句子又都比较浅显,应该不会再考。大略看一下29题,是问为了获得工资增长,一个人应该怎么做,这是最后四段的内容。在最后四段和第二段之间,有一个比较短的段落,本题考查的对象应该就是它——It would be nice if we all received automatic pay increases equal to our merit, but “nice” isn’t a quality attributed to most organizations. If you feel you deserve a significant raise in pay, you’ll probably have to ask for it,大意是“如果我们都能够自动获得与价值相当的加薪将是多么美好,但美好对于多数公司来说并不是必备特质。如果你觉得应获大幅度的加薪,那最好是提出来。”

  题目是问在获得一个工作之前,一个人应当如何。

  A,展现他的能力。

  B,给他的老板留下一个好印象。

  C,尽量要求最多的薪水。

  D,要求希望得到的薪水。

  第一道题考查的必然是第一段——只要这一段不是太短。根据上面的分析可知,第一段里从第二句开始讲的都是如何要求加薪的问题,这已经是获得工作之后的事情了。本题问的是在获得工作之前如何如何,那么它的答案一定在第一句话中:It is easier to negotiate initial salary requirement because once you are inside, the organizational constraints influence wage increases。大意是:为原始工资谈判要更为容易,因为你一旦进入了公司以后,公司的限制就会影响工资增长。这句话只谈到了工资问题,所以第一步可以排除A和B,因为它们谈论的不是工资。C和D的区别只在于一个是尽量要求最多的工资,一个是只按自己的希望要求工资。实际上这二者本身有多大区别都很难说,因为一个人对工资的期望一般情况下当然是越多越好,那么C和D其实是可以互通的。但是我们必须选择出一个作为答案,那就只能揣测出题者的意思,是C对还是D对。

  这一句话前半句既没有说“尽量要求最高”也没有说“希望”,从这里很难做出判断。先不看前半句,来分析后半句:因为你一旦进入了公司以后,公司的限制就会影响工资增长。既然担心入职后会限制工资增长,那么可以做出这样的推断——最好是入职前谈好最理想的工资,否则入职后再谈涨工资就困难了。这样看来,出题者的意思很可能是选C,而不是事先希望的一个工资水平。很多机构给出的答案是D,其实并没有太多的依据。(D)

  27. What can be inferred from Beth’s story?

  A) Prejudice against women still exists in some organizations.

  B) If people want what they deserve, they have to ask for it.

  C) People should not be content with what they have got.

  D) People should be careful when negotiating for a job.(B)

  这道题是问从Beth的故事可以推断出什么。

  A,对女性的偏见在一些机构依然存在。

  B,如果人们想要得到他们理应得到的,就必须提出要求。

  C,人们不应该满足于他们已有的东西。

  D,为工作谈判时应该小心为妙。

  Beth的故事就是第二段,因为这里使用的人称是I,而到了第三段,人称变成了we,可以判断不是Beth讲述的内容了。第二段首先要注意的是第一句话:I did not get what I wanted when I did not ask for it.(当我没有提出要求时,我没有得到我想得到的),这是一个总领句,是后面部分所述的内容的核心,此后所说的具体故事都是为了说明这个观点。四个选项中B的说法与此最为接近,可以选B。C和D可以较容易地排除,A所说的偏见在文中并没有体现,导致女性工资停滞的原因是女性不愿主动提出涨工资的要求,而不是人们对女性的偏见。

  28. We can learn from the passage that ________.

  A) unfairness exists in salary increases

  B) most people are overworked and underpaid

  C) one should avoid overstating one’s performance

  D) most organizations give their staff automatic pay raises(A)

  题目问从文章可以了解到什么。

  A,在工资增长问题上存在不公之处。

  B,大多数人过度工作,报酬过低。

  C,一个人应该避免夸大自己的业绩表现。

  D,多数公司自动给员工增长工资。

  这个题目比较吓人,乍看之下似乎在考查对全篇文章的理解。但可以看到这只是第三道题,后面还有两道。如果这道考的是全篇理解,按道理后面两道也应该考查全篇理解。一篇阅读有五分之三考查全篇是不可能的。那么应该如何缩小目标范围呢?第二段已经考查过,句子又都比较浅显,应该不会再考。大略看一下29题,是问为了获得工资增长,一个人应该怎么做,这是最后四段的内容。在最后四段和第二段之间,有一个比较短的段落,本题考查的对象应该就是它——It would be nice if we all received automatic pay increases equal to our merit, but “nice” isn’t a quality attributed to most organizations. If you feel you deserve a significant raise in pay, you’ll probably have to ask for it,大意是“如果我们都能够自动获得与价值相当的加薪将是多么美好,但美好对于多数公司来说并不是必备特质。如果你觉得应获大幅度的加薪,那最好是提出来。”

  B和C在这里都没有提到,可以排除,D的说法与这一段的意思正好相反——文中的观点是根据价值来自动增长工资是一种美好的理想而已,多数公司并不如此。言下之意也就是说“根据价值来自动增长工资”是不能实现的,做出了贡献,却没有相应地增长工资,这是一种什么现象呢?可以认为这是一种不公平的现象。A是正确的。

  29. To get a pay raise, a person should ________.

  A) advertise himself on the job market

  B) persuade his boss to sign a long-term contract

  C) try to get inside information about the organization

  D) do something to impress his boss just before merit pay decisions(D)

  这道题是问一个人要想获得工资增长应该怎么做。

  如何提出工资增长要求是最后四段的内容。其中前三段是准备工作,最后一段是即时提出要求的策略。把四个选项与最后四段内容做一下对照就可以找到正确答案了。

  A,在人才市场上推销自己(为自己做广告)。文章提到market是这一句:Find out what you are worth on the open market,这里的意思是在市场上了解一下自己的价值,而不是去市场上推销自己,否则的话,就成了换工作而不是涨工资了。

  B,劝说老板签订一份长期合同。没有找到类似的内容。

  C,努力获得公司的内部信息。Use information as a bargaining chip too. Find out what you are worth on the open market. What will someone else pay for your services?这里讲到了信息问题,但显然这里所说的信息是指公司外部——公开市场信息,获取信息目的是发现自己的真实市场价值,为提出合理的工资要求做好准备。

  D,根据价值做出工资增长的决定之前,做一些贡献给老板留下深刻印象。If you can give your boss something he or she needs……这一句的内容与D的说法一致。可以确定选D。

  30. To be successful in negotiations, one must ________.

  A) meet his boss at the appropriate time

  B) arrive at the negotiation table punctually

  C) be good at influencing the outcome of the interaction

  D) be familiar with what the boss likes and dislikes

  题目是问要想在谈判中获得成功,一个人必须怎么做。

  A,在合适的时间与他的老板见面。

  B,准时到达谈判桌。

  C,善于影响交流互动的结果。

  D,熟悉老板的好恶。

  看完这四个选项之后,可以判断这里提到的内容与最后四段中的前三段无关,那么可以断定此题考查的是最后一段的内容。最后一段讲了两点(前后用and连接),第一是Go into the negotiations prepared to place your chips on the table at the appropriate time,带上这些筹码,在合适的时间去谈判吧。这里的on the table是一种比喻说法,指让老板看到你的筹码;at the appropriate time指的是上文说的理想的时机,如刚刚签下了一个客户(而不是A所说的见面的具体时间)。这样A和B的说法就都不正确了。第二点是use communication style to guide the direction of the interaction ,这里的guide the direction of the interaction 直译是控制交流的方向,与C所说的“影响交流互动的结果”意思一样。D的说法在文中找不到,可以排除,这样只能选择C。

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