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专家解析大学英语四级考试历年阅读真题(二)

发帖者 吴怀唐 On 下午1:35
  Passage Two

  I don’t ever want to talk about being a woman scientist again. There was a time in my life when people asked constantly for stories about what it’s like to work in a field dominated by men. I was never very good at telling those stories because truthfully I never found them interesting. What I do find interesting is the origin of the universe, the shape of space-time and the nature of black holes.

  At 19, when I began studying astrophysics, it did not bother me in the least to be the only woman in the classroom. But while earning my Ph.D. at MIT and then as a post-doctor doing space research, the issue started to bother me. My every achievement—jobs, research papers, awards—was viewed through the lens of gender (性别) politics. So were my failures. Sometimes, when I was pushed into an argument on left brain versus (相对于) right brain, or nature versus nurture (培育), I would instantly fight fiercely on my behalf and all womankind.

  Then one day a few years ago, out of my mouth came a sentence that would eventually become my reply to any and all provocations: I don’t talk about that anymore. It took me 10 years to get back the confidence I had at 19 and to realize that I didn’t want to deal with gender issues. Why should curing sexism be yet another terrible burden on every female scientist? After all, I don’t study sociology or political theory.

  Today I research and teach at Barnard, a women’s college in New York City. Recently, someone asked me how may of the 45 students in my class were women. You cannot imagine my satisfaction at being able to answer, 45. I know some of my students worry how they will manage their scientific research and a desire for children. And I don’t dismiss those concerns. Still, I don’t tell them “war” stories. Instead, I have given them this: the visual of their physics professor heavily pregnant doing physics experiments. And in turn they have given me the image of 45 women driven by a love of science. And that’s a sight worth talking about.

  62. Why doesn’t the author want to talk about being a woman scientist again?

  A) She feels unhappy working in male-dominated fields.

  B) She is fed up with the issue of gender discrimination.

  C) She is not good at telling stories of the kind.

  D) She finds space research more important.(B)

  63. From Paragraph 2, we can infer that people would attribute the author’s failures to ________.

  A) the very fact that she is a woman

  B) her involvement in gender politics

  C) her over-confidence as a female astrophysicist

  D) the burden she bears in a male-dominated society(A)

  64. What did the author constantly fight against while doing her Ph.D. and post-doctoral research?

  A) Lack of confidence in succeeding in space science.

  B) Unfair accusations from both inside and outside her circle.

  C) People’s stereotyped attitude toward female scientists.

  D) Widespread misconceptions about nature and nurtured.(C)

  65. Why does the author feel great satisfaction when talking about her class?

  A) Female students no longer have to bother about gender issues.

  B) Her students’ performance has brought back her confidence.

  C) Her female students can do just as well as male students.

  D) More female students are pursuing science than before.(D)

  66. What does the image the author presents to her students suggest?

  A) Women students needn’t have the concerns of her generation.

  B) Women have more barriers on their way to academic success.

  C) Women can balance a career in science and having a family.

  D) Women now have fewer problems pursuing a science career.

  这是一篇与性别歧视有关的文章,讲的是女性应该如何面对性别歧视的问题。作者以第一人称的形式,以亲身的经历来说明女性在面对性别歧视时应该采取不屑一顾的态度。

  全文一共四个大段,开篇为I don’t ever want to talk about being a woman scientist again,以“again”一词造成悬疑,引起读者对原因的探究,而后整个第一段叙述了相对于这一again的上一次作者面对性别问题时的态度;并解释了原因是兴趣不在于此(I never found them interesting)。

  第二段开始初步为“again”释疑,叙述了[考试[大]作者从最初对性别问题的超然态度(it did not bother me in the least to be the only woman in the classroom)转变为积极捍卫女性利益态度(I would instantly fight fiercely on my behalf and all womankind)的过程。

  第三段进一步为“again”释疑,叙述作者重又悟出应回归超然态度的心理经历。从Why should curing sexism be yet another terrible burden on every female scientist? After all, I don’t study sociology or political theory这一问一答可以看出,虽然多年过去,但作者用以对付性别问题这一心理重担的利器依然是兴趣(don’t study sociology or political theory)。

  最后一段叙述了作者重归超然态度后如何教导学生正确地面对性别问题。在有些学生因性别问题(如何在科学研究和生儿育女间的愿望之间做出选择)而忧虑时,作者以身言教(heavily pregnant doing physics experiments),告诉学生们应该忘记性别问题。作者的表率起了作用,像她们的老师一样,学生们把精力完全放在了兴趣上面(45 women driven by a love of science)。

  文章的内容虽然涉及了社会问题,但切入角度是主*考试&大观第一人称,语言修辞上更为接近散文(essay)的风格,所以相对于议论文、说明文较容易理解。

  62. Why doesn’t the author want to talk about being a woman scientist again?

  A) She feels unhappy working in male-dominated fields.

  B) She is fed up with the issue of gender discrimination.

  C) She is not good at telling stories of the kind.

  D) She finds space research more important.

  这道题某权威机构给的答案是B,She is fed up with the issue of gender discrimination,我认为这个结论有待商榷。

  题目问作者为什么不想再一次谈论作为一个女科学家的感受。四个选项的意思是:

  A,工作在一个男性主导的领域里让她感到不快乐。

  B,她对性别歧视问题感到厌倦了。

  C,她不善于讲述此类故事。

  D,她发现太空研究更为重要。

  文章第一段就讲述了作者不愿再评论自己作为女科学家的事实。这一段的意思是这样的:

  我不想再一次谈论我作为女性科学家的事情。在我的人生中,有那么一段时间,人们总是问我,在一个被男性主导的领域中工作都会发生什么故事。我从来都不善于给他们讲述那些故事,因为,说真的,我觉得那些故事一点意思也没有。让我觉得有意思的是宇宙的起源,时空的形状,和黑洞的本质。

  结合全文来看,第二段叙述作者曾经陷入女性主义的炽热情绪当中,而后作者用了10年时间回归了对性别问题的超然态度(It took me 10 years to get back the confidence I had at 19),这也是题目中使用again的原因。第二段最后一句:I don’t study sociology or political theory,我不是研究社会学或者政治理论的,体现出作者把性别问题归于学术或政治问题,而女性作为当事人不应参与其中的态度。

  显然,文中没有提到她在男性主导的领域中工作高兴与否,对于性别歧视问题,作者只是因对问题本身兴趣不大,而不善于讲述。作者的态度显而易见,她对性别问题表示了不屑一顾,也就不存在B所说的厌烦了的问题。这样ABC都可以排除,D说她发现太空研究更为重要,与第一段最后一句话意思相符。

  63. From Paragraph 2, we can infer that people would attribute the author’s failures to ________.

  A) the very fact that she is a woman

  B) her involvement in gender politics

  C) her over-confidence as a female astrophysicist

  D) the burden she bears in a male-dominated society

  题目问从第二段可以推断出人们把作者的失败归于什么。

  A, 她是一个女人的事实。

  B, 她参与了性别政治。

  C, 她作为女天体物理学家的过于自信。

  D, 在男性主导的社会中她身负重担。

  第二段讲的是作者对性别问题的态度由不在乎转变为热情关注的过程。19岁时完全超脱(it did not bother me in the least),麻省理工求学及之后研究时开始受到干扰(the issue started to bother me),这种干扰就是作者所有的成就:工作、研究论文、获奖,都受到性别偏见这副有色眼镜的过滤(viewed through the lens of gender politics),而后作者写了一句So were my failures,so在这里是代指,指代viewed through the lens of gender politics,即my failures were also viewed through the lens of gender politics,意思就是人们是从性别政治的角度看待她的失败,也就是认为她的失败是由性别偏见引起的。这样的话,符合这个意思的只有A。

  B所说的她参与了性别政治是个迷惑选项。参与性别政治是指为女性利益奔走呼号,第二段末尾也确实提到了作者的女性主义热情,但这是性别歧视发生之后才可以进行的,否则,如果没有发生歧视,奋力捍卫女性的利益的缘由就不存在了。而作者的失败,如果是因性别问题而起的话,则是早于失败之前就已经发生作用了。因此从逻辑上讲,作者自己的失败应该是先于参与捍卫女性利益发生的,后者不可能成为前者发生的原因。

  64. What did the author constantly fight against while doing her Ph.D. and post-doctoral research?

  A) Lack of confidence in succeeding in space science.

  B) Unfair accusations from both inside and outside her circle.

  C) People’s stereotyped attitude toward female scientists.

  D) Widespread misconceptions about nature and nurtured.

  题目问作者在攻读哲学博士和进行博士后研究时要同什么进行不断地斗争。

  四个选项中,A说是缺少在太空科学领域成功的信心。文章提到了作者失去信心的问题,It took me 10 years to get back the confidence I had at 19 ,但这个信心是作者在面对世人对女性偏见时有信心不予理睬,而不是科研领域的信心。

  B说是来自她的圈内圈外的不公平指责。世人戴着性别的有色眼镜看她(was viewed through the lens of gender politics),但这也仅仅是一种态度罢了,还没到指责、责难的地步。所以B的说法不能算对。

  C说是人们对女性科学家的固有态度。文中第二段从But while earning my Ph.D. at MIT and then as a post-doctor doing space research, the issue started to bother me这句开始,讲述了作者面对世人成见时如何挺身而出、为女性仗义执言。这也就是C 所表达的意思。

  D说是对自然与培育的广泛误解。根据第二段,nature versus nurture的问题是作者与人争论的话题之一,是诸多对女性的成见之一,文中具体举出的例子就另有left brain versus right brain。而作者要斗争的是所有遭受的成见,D所说的这其中一种成见不可能是题目所说的整个时期内一直都要斗争的对象。

  65. Why does the author feel great satisfaction when talking about her class?

  A) Female students no longer have to bother about gender issues.

  B) Her students’ performance has brought back her confidence.

  C) Her female students can do just as well as male students.

  D) More female students are pursuing science than before.

  题干问作者谈到她的班级时为何流露出满意之情。

  与题目相关的原文是这样的:Today I research and teach at Barnard, a women’s college in New York City. Recently, someone asked me how many of the 45 students in my class were women. You cannot imagine my satisfaction at being able to answer, 45,汉译为:我现在在纽约一所女子大学Barnard做研究和教书,最近有人问我,我的班级里45名学生中有多少个女生。你想象不到我能够回答“45个”时的满意之情。

  从前文的叙述可以知道,作者一直需要面对的问题是在男性主导的领域女性太少的问题。19岁时,她是班里唯一的女生(the only woman in the classroom),做研究后,人们总是问她在一个男性主导的领域里工作的情形(the only woman in the classroom work in a field dominated by men)。可见,在作者研究的领域里,女生是很少的,而现在班里45人全部是女生,作者很有可能是为在自己研究的领域里出现了这么多的女性而感到满意。在这里作者使用了Be able to answer而不直接用answer,暗含以前是不可能说出这样的数字的。这个词组的选用也暗示了作者是在为数字的由少到多而满意。

  A, 女生不再为性别问题而烦恼。最后一段有一句话:I know some of my students worry how they will manage their scientific research and a desire for children,意思是作者知道有些学生还是为科研与家庭之间如何平衡而忧虑。这一叙述与A不符。

  B, 她的学生的表现使她重拾信心。文中没有提到她的学生表现如何。

  C, 她的女学生能与男学生做得一样好。文中没有类似的叙述。

  D, 追求科学研究的女生比以前多了。这一描述符合上文的分析。

  66. What does the image the author presents to her students suggest?

  A) Women students needn’t have the concerns of her generation.

  B) Women have more barriers on their way to academic success.

  C) Women can balance a career in science and having a family.

  D) Women now have fewer problems pursuing a science career.

  题目问作者展示给学生们的图景意味着什么。

  文章的最后一段讲到了作者曾给学生展示过一个怀孕教师坚持做物理试验的图景。相关原文是:I have given them this: the visual of their physics professor heavily pregnant doing physics experiments,身怀六甲的物理教授依然在做物理实验。而这一行为的前因后果在第四段中也描述得很清楚。在这句话之前,作者给出了原因: I know some of my students worry how they will manage their scientific research and a desire for children,一些学生担心不能很好地处理科研与生育孩子之间的平衡。作者为了消除学生们的担忧,便展示了这个图景。而在这句话之后,作者给出了结果:in turn they have given me the image of 45 women driven by a love of science,45个学生完全投入到科学之爱中。从这些前因后果可以看出,作者之所以展示这一图景,就是为了打消学生对于生育孩子会否影响科学研究的忧虑。

  A,女生们无须为教授的怀孕担忧。这一图景的直接信号是要告诉女生们无须为教授担心,而传达的意义则是无须为她们自己生育孩子担心,而题目问的是“意味”着什么,因此A的说法不对。

  B,女性在通往学术成功的道路上会遇到更多的障碍。教授展示此图景的目的就是为了告诉学生们怀孕并不会对科研造成什么障碍,所以B不对。

  C,女性可以在科研和拥有家庭之间很好地平衡。符合前面的分析。

  D,现在的女性在追求科研生涯时遇到的问题较以前少。应该说怀孕问题确实是一个问题,只是作者的观点在于不把这一问题看做是障碍而已。D的说法不对。

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